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  • 1
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    In:  Geophys. Res. Lett., Amsterdam, 4, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 67-1 to 67-4, pp. 1334, (ISSN: 1340-4202)
    Publication Date: 2003
    Keywords: Seismology ; hot ; spot ; Plate tectonics ; Deep seismic sounding (espec. cont. crust)
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Fusion offers the potential for a very high specific power, providing a large specific impulse that can be traded-off with thrust for mission optimization. Thus fusion is a leading candidate for missions beyond the moon. A new approach is discussed for space fusion power, namely Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC). This method offers a high power density in a relatively small, simple device. It appears capable of burning aneutronic fuels which are most desirable for space applications and is well suited for direct conversion. An experimental device to test the concept is described.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT PROPULSION AND POWER
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center, Vision-21: Space Travel for the Next Millennium; p 141-149
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-06-11
    Description: The background induced by interactions of neutrons with detector material (and shield material) is difficult to be rejected. It is one of the most important factors to affect the sensitivity of a balloon-borne gamma-ray astronomical telescope. The main component of neutron flux at the major detector of the telescope is incident neutrons, that consists of atmospheric neutrons and neutrons locally produced in the balloon platform. Therefore, shielding the detector from incident neutrons is a possible way to reduce the background. NaI (T1) crystal is very widely used in gamma-ray astronomical telescopes. Through balloon-borne experiment it is shown that up 6 LiF shield is effective to reduce the background in NaI crystal.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: OG-9.3-5 , 19th Intern. Cosmic Ray Conf - Vol. 3; p 371-374; NASA-CP-2376-VOL-3
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-06-11
    Description: The Crab pulsar PSR0531+21 was observed in a balloon flight from the Xianghe Balloon Station (China). Data were obtained in the range 20 to 200 keV with a poswish hard X-ray telescope which comprised a 150 sq cm primary crystal of 5 mm thick CsI(T1) which actively shielded the lower 2 pi steradians by a 5 cm thick NaI(T1) crystal. The scintillation pulses originating in CsI and NaI crystals are distinguished by pulse shape discrimination. The telescope has a field of view of approximately 4 deg H psi H pi determined by graded shield and collimator. The effective geometric area of the detector is 116 sq cm. It is noted that when folding a data flow on a long period interference from the data acquisition, transmission and recording system considerably affect the result.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: OG-2.3-7 , 19th Intern. Cosmic Ray Conf - Vol. 1; p 149-150; NASA-CP-2376-VOL-1
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Satellite observations show that ice cloud effective radius (r(sub e)) increases with ice water content (IWC) but decreases with aerosol optical thickness (AOT). Using least-squares fitting to the observed data, we obtain an analytical formula to describe the variations of r(sub e) with IWC and AOT for several regions with distinct characteristics of r(sub e) -IWC-AOT relationships. As IWC directly relates to convective strength and AOT represents aerosol loading, our empirical formula provides a means to quantify the relative roles of dynamics and aerosols in controlling r(sub e) in different geographical regions, and to establish a framework for parameterization of aerosol effects on r(sub e) in climate models.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: GSFC.JA.6385.2012 , Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics; 11; 457-463
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Optically thin cirrus cloud (optical depth 〈 0.3) net radiative forcing represents one of the primary uncertainties in climate feedback, as sub-visible clouds play a fundamental role in atmospheric radiation balance and climate change. A lidar is a very sensitive optical device to detect clouds with an optical depth as low as 10-4. In this paper we assess the daytime net radiative forcing of sub-visible cirrus clouds detected at Goddard Space Flight Center, a permanent observational site of the NASA Micro Pulse Lidar Network in 2012. Depending on their height, season and hour of the day, the solar albedo effect can outweigh the infrared greenhouse effect, cooling the earth atmosphere system rather than warming it exclusively. As result, based on latitude, the net forcing of sub-visible cirrus clouds can be more accurately parameterized in climate models.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN41941 , EPJ Web of Conferences (e-ISSN 2100-014X); 119; 11004|International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC 27); 5-10 Jul. 2015; New York, NY; United States
    Format: text
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: Estimates of solar normal mode frequencies from helioseismic observations can be improved by using Multitaper Spectral Analysis (MTSA) to estimate spectra from the time series, then using wavelet denoising of the log spectra. MTSA leads to a power spectrum estimate with reduced variance and better leakage properties than the conventional periodogram. Under the assumption of stationarity and mild regularity conditions, the log multitaper spectrum has a statistical distribution that is approximately Gaussian, so wavelet denoising is asymptotically an optimal method to reduce the noise in the estimated spectra. We find that a single m-upsilon spectrum benefits greatly from MTSA followed by wavelet denoising, and that wavelet denoising by itself can be used to improve m-averaged spectra. We compare estimates using two different 5-taper estimates (Stepian and sine tapers) and the periodogram estimate, for GONG time series at selected angular degrees l. We compare those three spectra with and without wavelet-denoising, both visually, and in terms of the mode parameters estimated from the pre-processed spectra using the GONG peak-fitting algorithm. The two multitaper estimates give equivalent results. The number of modes fitted well by the GONG algorithm is 20% to 60% larger (depending on l and the temporal frequency) when applied to the multitaper estimates than when applied to the periodogram. The estimated mode parameters (frequency, amplitude and width) are comparable for the three power spectrum estimates, except for modes with very small mode widths (a few frequency bins), where the multitaper spectra broadened the modest compared with the periodogram. We tested the influence of the number of tapers used and found that narrow modes at low n values are broadened to the extent that they can no longer be fit if the number of tapers is too large. For helioseismic time series of this length and temporal resolution, the optimal number of tapers is less than 10.
    Keywords: Solar Physics
    Type: NOAO-Preprint-833
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: InGaAs APDs with improved photon counting characteristics were designed and fabricated and their performance improvements were observed. Following the results, a 4x4 individually addressable APD array was designed, fabricated, and results are reported.
    Keywords: Electronics and Electrical Engineering
    Type: IEEE Infrared Dectors; 17-19 Jul. 2006; Quebec City; Canada
    Format: text
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-08-27
    Description: The potential use of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) power source for space propulsion has previously been suggested by the authors and others. In the past, these discussions have generally followed the charged-particle electric-discharge engine (QED) concept proposed by Bussard, in which the IEC is used to generate an electron beam which vaporizes liquid hydrogen for use as a propellant. However, in the present study, we consider an alternate approach, using the IEC to drive a conventional electric thruster unit. This has the advantage of building on the rapidly developing technology for such thrusters, which operate at higher specific impulse. Key issues related to this approach include the continued successful development of the physics and engineering of the IEC unit, as well as the development of efficient step-down dc voltage transformers. The IEC operates by radial injection of energetic ions into a spherical vessel. A very high ion density is created in a small core region at the center of the vessel, resulting in extremely high fusion power density in the core. Present experiments at the U. of Illinois in small IEC devices (less than 60-cm. dia.) have demonstrated much of the basic physics underlying this concept, e.g. producing approximately 10(exp 6) D-D neutrons/sec steady-state with deuterium gas flow injection. The ultimate goal is to increase the power densities by several orders of magnitude and to convert to D-He-3 injection. If successful, such an experiment would represent a milestone proof-of-principle device for eventual space power use. Further discussion of IEC physics and status will be presented with a description of the overall propulsion system and estimated performance.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT PROPULSION AND POWER
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center, Vision 21: Interdisciplinary Science and Engineering in the Era of Cyberspace; p 185-229
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: The potential use of an INERTIAL ELECTROSTATIC CONFINEMENT (IEC) power source for space propulsion has previously been suggested by the authors and others. In the past, these discussions have generally followed the charged-particle electric-discharge engine (QED) concept proposed by Bussard, in which the IEC is used to generate an electron beam which vaporizes liquid hydrogen for use as a propellant. However, an alternate approach is considered, using the IEC to drive a 'conventional' electric thruster unit. This has the advantage of building on the rapidly developing technology for such thrusters, which operate at higher specific impulse. Key issues related to this approach include the continued successful development of the physics and engineering of the IEC unit, as well as the development of efficient step-down dc voltage transformers. The IEC operates by radial injection of energetic ions into a spherical vessel. A very high ion density is created in a small core region at the center of the vessel, resulting in extremely high fusion power density in the core. Experiments at the U. of Illinois in small IEC devices (is less than 60 cm. dia.) demonstrated much of the basic physics underlying this concept, e.g. producing 10(exp 6) D-D neutrons/sec steady-state with deuterium gas flow injection. The ultimate goal is to increase the power densities by several orders of magnitude and to convert to D-He-3 injection. If successful, such an experiment would represent a milestone proof-of-principle device for eventual space power use. Further discussion of IEC physics and status are presented with a description of the overall propulsion system and estimated performance.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT PROPULSION AND POWER
    Type: NASA-TM-109228 , NAS 1.15:109228 , FSL-422 , Vision 21 Conference; Mar 30, 1993 - Mar 31, 1993; Cleveland, OH; United States
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