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  • 1
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    In:  Geophys. Prospecting, New York, Am. Soc. Mech. Eng., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 412-429, pp. L24306, (ISBN: 0534351875, 2nd edition)
    Publication Date: 1971
    Keywords: Rayleigh waves ; Layers ; Channel waves
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Errors have been analyzed for monthly-average downward and net longwave surface fluxes derived on a 5-deg equal-area grid over the globe, using a satellite technique. Meteorological data used in this technique are available from the TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) system flown aboard NOAA's operational sun-synchronous satellites. The data used are for February 1982 from NOAA-6 and NOAA-7 satellites. The errors in the parametrized equations were estimated by comparing their results with those from a detailed radiative transfer model. The errors in the TOVS-derived surface temperature, water vapor burden, and cloud cover were estimated by comparing these meteorological parameters with independent measurements obtained from other satellite sources. Analysis of the overall errors shows that the present technique could lead to underestimation of downward fluxes by 5 to 15 W/sq m and net fluxes by 4 to 12 W/sq m.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: International Journal of Remote Sensing (ISSN 0143-1161); 14; 1; p. 95-114.
    Format: text
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Understanding the impact of cirrus clouds on the global radiation budget is essential to determining the role of clouds in the process of climate change. The ongoing Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) is charged with measuring the global radiation balance at the top of the atmosphere. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) is measuring global cloud amounts and properties over a time frame similar to ERBE. Specific cloud properties are absent from the ERBE program, while ISCCP lacks the broadband radiances necessary to determine the total radiation fields. Together, results from these two global programs have the potential for improving the knowledge of the relationship between cirrus clouds and the Earth radiation balance. The First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE), especially its cirrus Intensive Field Observations (IFO), provides opportunities for studying radiation measurements from the ERBE taken over areas with known cirrus cloud properties. Satellite measurements taken during the IFO are used to determine the broadband radiation fields over cirrus clouds and to examine the relationship between narrowband and broadband radiances over various known scenes. The latter constitutes the link between the ERBE and the ISCCP.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: FIRE Science Results 1988; p 123-127
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Computer simulations of a least squares estimator operating on the ERBE scanning channels are discussed. The estimator is designed to minimize the errors produced by nonideal spectral response to spectrally varying and uncertain radiant input. The three ERBE scanning channels cover a shortwave band a longwave band and a ""total'' band from which the pseudo inverse spectral filter estimates the radiance components in the shortwave band and a longwave band. The radiance estimator draws on instantaneous field of view (IFOV) scene type information supplied by another algorithm of the ERBE software, and on a priori probabilistic models of the responses of the scanning channels to the IFOV scene types for given Sun scene spacecraft geometry. It is found that the pseudoinverse spectral filter is stable, tolerant of errors in scene identification and in channel response modeling, and, in the absence of such errors, yields minimum variance and essentially unbiased radiance estimates.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TM-85781 , NAS 1.15:85781
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Computer programs were developed for evaluating homogeneous path transmittance with line-by-line and quasi-random band model formulations. Spectral transmittances for some selected bands of different gases (CO, N2O, CO2, H2O) were obtained using these programs. Results of theoretical computations are compared with available experimental measurements. Significant errors are observed in the results obtained from a quasi-random band model formulation, indicating that it is inadequate to meet the accuracy requirements for atmospheric work.
    Keywords: OPTICS
    Type: NASA-CR-147116 , TR-76-T7
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Basic equations for calculating the upwelling atmospheric radiation are presented which account for various sources of radiation coming out at the top of the atmosphere. The theoretical formulation of the transmittance models (line-by-line and quasi-random band model) and the computational procedures used for the evaluation of the transmittance and radiance are discussed in detail. By employing the Lorentz line-by-line and quasi-random computer programs, model calculations were made to determine the upwelling radiance and signal change in the wave number interval of CO fundamental band. These results are useful in determining the effects of different interfering molecules, water vapor profiles, ground temperatures, and ground emittances on the upwelling radiance and signal change. This information is of vital importance in establishing the feasibility of measuring the concentrations of pollutants in the atmosphere from a gas filter correlation instrument flown on an aircraft or mounted on a satellite.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-145711 , TR-75-T14
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: An infrared radiative transfer model has been developed for evaluating anisotropic functions in the longwave region (5-50 microns) due to limb-darkening effects in the earth's atmosphere. An accurate narrow-band model of absorption has been used for computing transmission functions of the atmosphere. Absorption due to all major and minor atmospheric constituents has been taken into account including the continuum absorption due to water vapor. Anisotropic functions have been calculated for several latitudinal and seasonal climatological-average model atmospheres. The effects of the variability of various meteorological parameters, e.g. surface temperature, surface relative humidity, and cloud-top height have been examined. It has been found that the variability of cloud parameters has the largest effect on the infrared anisotropic functions.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 83-0161
    Format: text
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-06-11
    Description: Observations were made during the past several years on the Crab pulsar using the Ooty atmospheric Cerenkov array with the aim of detecting possible emission of ultra high energy gamma rays by the pulsar. During the course of these observations, it was found that the Crab pulsar emits TeV gamma rays in bursts of short duration. The microbursts of TeV gamma rays from the Crab pulsar, which were seen in the data of at least three years, also reveal interesting secondary periodicities. It was noticed at first that some bursts could be connected with the others that occurred during the same night or during the next two nights with integral number of cycles of periods 43 + or - 1 minute. Ten possible periods in the vicinity of 43 minutes were determined for all the combinations of bursts for each year. The best values of periods thus obtained were different from year to year. But when, instead of the real time, the number of Crab cycles elapsed between the bursts was used as the unit of time, two values of burst periods - 77460 and 77770 Crab cycles - were found to be significant in the data of at least two years. A Monte Carlo simulation using 1500 trial periods chosen randomly within + or - 5 minutes of the original burst period did not reveal any value of the period as significant.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: OG-2.3-5 , 19th Intern. Cosmic Ray Conf - Vol. 1; p 144; NASA-CP-2376-VOL-1
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The Ooty atmospheric Cerenkov array was used in 1982-83 to see if the galactic center and the extra-galactic sources 3C 273, Centaurus A emit gamma rays at TeV energies. The ON/OFF method was used wherein the source was tracked for 16 minutes and immediately afterwards, a background region in the same zenith angle range was tracked for the next 16 minutes. Data were taken for approx 15 hours (55 scans) on 3C273, approx 7 hours (26 scans) on Cen A and 5 hours (19 scans) on galactic center. A preliminary analysis involving direct comparison of total rates on and off the source shows no significant excess from any of these orbits. Results of detailed analysis using different energy thresholds are presented.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: OG-2.7-1 , NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center 19th Intern. Cosmic Ray Conf., Vol. 1; p 263
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-06-27
    Description: Altitude distributions of and airglow emissions by certain oxygen and nitrogen metastable constituents
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: REPT.-05627-17-S , NASA-CR-94130
    Format: application/pdf
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