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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: A comprehensive analysis of both the molecular genetic and phenotypic responses of any organism to the spaceflight environment has never been accomplished due to significant technological and logistical hurdles. Moreover, the effects of spaceflight on microbial pathogenicity and associated infectious disease risks have not been studied. The bacterial pathogen Salmonella typhimurium was grown aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-115 and compared to identical ground control cultures. Global microarray and proteomic analyses revealed 167 transcripts and 73 proteins changed expression with the conserved RNA-binding protein Hfq identified as a likely global regulator involved in the response to this environment. Hfq involvement was confirmed with a ground based microgravity culture model. Spaceflight samples exhibited enhanced virulence in a murine infection model and extracellular matrix accumulation consistent with a biofilm. Strategies to target Hfq and related regulators could potentially decrease infectious disease risks during spaceflight missions and provide novel therapeutic options on Earth.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: A cluster ion chemistry for sodium is developed which relates the Na(+) profile to the Na profile using reactions involving Na(+).N2, Na(+).CO2, and Na(+).H2O. Removal of sodium from the mesosphere is accomplished by the formation of higher order clusters of the form Na(+).(H2O)n which presumably precipitate to the lower atmosphere. This sink is most effective in the 80-85 km altitude range. The chemical equilibrium model is applied to experimental observations of the Na and Na(+) layers.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics; 41; June 197
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The uniqueness of axisymmetric monopole solutions to the Bogomolny equations is studied. The generalized Green identity for harmonic maps is used to prove that the Prasad-Sommerfield solution is the unique axisymmetric one-monopole solution. The multimonopole solutions are also discussed.
    Keywords: PHYSICS (GENERAL)
    Type: Physics Letters (ISSN 0375-9601); 109A; 429-432
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Atmospheric sodium has been observed over Urbana (40 deg 10 min N, 88 deg 10 min W) using a monostatic lidar tuned to 589.0 nm. The photocount data are processed using ditital smoothing filters to obtain continuous estimates of the sodium density versus altitude. The filter cutoff frequency is related to the height resolution and accuracy of the estimated profile. Wavelike structures in the sodium layer have been observed with typical wavelengths of 3-15 km and phase velocities of 1-3 m/s. The layer is characterized by a sharp falloff on the bottomside and often an undulatory motion of the bottomside of the layer accompanies the wave motion. The topside gradient of the layer is frequently observed to decrease through the night.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics; 43; Apr. 198
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: The University of Illinois (Urbana) lidar system has been developed to study the atmospheric sodium layer near 90 km altitude through the mechanism of resonance scattering. The photocount data are processed using digital smoothing filters to obtain continuous estimates of the sodium density versus altitude. The filter cutoff frequency is related to the height resolution and accuracy of the estimated profile. Lidar photocount data processed using this filtering technique show wave-like structures in the sodium layer which move downward with time. The waves have typical wavelengths of 3-15 km and phase velocities of less than 1 m/sec. The movement of these structures seems to be independent of the motion of the bottomside of the layer, which also has been observed to move up or down by as much as 2 km over a period of a few hours.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters; 5; Aug. 197
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Atmospheric atomic sodium was studied with a laser radar system. Photocount data were processed using a digital filter to obtain continuous estimates of the sodium concentration versus altitude. Wave-like structures in the sodium layer were observed, and there was evidence for the presence of a standing wave in the layer. The bottomside of the layer was observed to undulate with a period of about 2 1/2 hours, and the layer was observed to broaden through the night. A meteor ablation-cluster ion theory of sodium was developed. The theory shows good agreement with existing atmospheric observations as well as laboratory measurements of rate constants.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: AR-79 , NASA-CR-157770 , UILU-ENG-78-2501 , (ISSN 0568-0581)
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: Neutral and ionic forms of sodium form narrow, well-defined layers which peak in the 90-95 km altitude region at midlatitudes. A new theory for the sodium layer is presented, which is found to be in good agreement with existing atmospheric observations as well as available laboratory measurements of rate constants. The layer is believed to result naturally from a meteor ablation source over a chemical sink with vertical transport of Na(+) playing an important role in the layer shape and variation. While the neutral chemistry is believed to consist of chemical equilibrium between Na and NaO, the ion chemistry departs from earlier studies and considers a cluster ion scheme. It is possible that higher-order cluster ions of sodium play a role in the formation of aerosols, through attachment or ion-induced nucleation processes.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters; 6; Mar. 197
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