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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: An inexpensive, laboratory-based, strain gauge valve gape monitor (SGM) was developed to monitor the valve gape behavior of bivalve molluscs in response to diel-cycling hypoxia. A Wheatstone bridge was connected to strain gauges that were attached to the shells of oysters (Crassostrea virginica). The recorded signals allowed for the opening and closing of the bivalves to be recorded continuously over two-day periods of experimentally-induced diel-cycling hypoxia and diel-cycling changes in pH. Here, we describe a protocol for developing an inexpensive strain gauge monitor and describe, in an example laboratory experiment, how we used it to measure the valve gape behavior of Eastern oysters (C. virginica), in response to diel-cycling hypoxia and cyclical changes in pH. Valve gape was measured on oysters subjected to cyclical severe hypoxic (0.6 mg/L) dissolved oxygen conditions with and without cyclical changes in pH, cyclical mild hypoxic (1.7 mg/L) conditions and normoxic (7.3 mg/L) conditions. We demonstrate that when oysters encounter repeated diel cycles, they rapidly close their shells in response to severe hypoxia and close with a time lag to mild hypoxia. When normoxia is restored, they rapidly open again. Oysters did not respond to cyclical pH conditions superimposed on diel cycling severe hypoxia. At reduced oxygen conditions, more than one third of the oysters closed simultaneously. We demonstrate that oysters respond to diel-cycling hypoxia, which must be considered when assessing the behavior of bivalves to dissolved oxygen. The valve SGM can be used to assess responses of bivalve molluscs to changes in dissolved oxygen or contaminants. Sealing techniques to better seal the valve gape strain gauges from sea water need further improvement to increase the longevity of the sensors.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN54019 , Journal of Visualized Experiments (e-ISSN 1940-087X); 138
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Shear TUrbulence Resuspension Mesocosm (STURM) tanks, with high instantaneous bottom shear stress and realistic water column mixing in a single system, allow realistic benthic-pelagic coupling studies with sediment resuspension. The 1 m3 tanks can be programmed to produce tidal or episodic sediment resuspension for extended time periods (e.g. 4 weeks), over muddy sediments with a variety of benthic organisms. A resuspension paddle produces uniform bottom shear stress across the sediment surface while gently mixing a 1 m deep overlying water column. The STURM tanks can be programmed to different magnitudes, frequencies, and durations of bottom shear stress (and thus resuspension) with proportional water column turbulence levels over a wide range of mixing settings for benthic-pelagic coupling experiments. Over ten STURM calibration settings, RMS turbulent velocity ranged from 0.26 to 4.52 cm s1, energy dissipation rate from 0.0016 to 2.65 cm2 s3, the average bottom shear stress from 0.0035 to 0.19 Pa, and the instantaneous maximum bottom shear stress from 0.07 to 1.7 Pa. We have performed four 4-week benthic-pelagic coupling ecosystem experiments with tidal resuspension and stepwise erosion experiments (both with and without infaunal bivalves), carried out experiments on oyster biodeposit resuspension, mimicked storms overlain on tidal resuspension, and studied the effects of varying frequency and duration of resuspension on sedimentary contaminant release. The large size of the tanks allows water quality and particle measurements using standard oceanographic instrumentation. The realistic scale and complexity of the contained ecosystems has revealed indirect feedbacks and responses that are not observable in smaller, less complex experimental systems.
    Keywords: Oceanography
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN51381 , Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology; 499; 35-50
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Coral-associated bacteria play an increasingly recognized part in coral health. We investigated the effect of local anthropogenic impacts on coral microbial communities on reefs near Jeddah, the largest city on the Saudi Arabian coast of the central Red Sea. We analyzed the bacterial community structure of water and corals (Pocillopora verrucosa and Acropora hemprichii) at sites that were relatively unimpacted, exposed to sedimentation & local sewage, or in the discharge area of municipal wastewaters. Coral microbial communities were significantly different at impacted sites: in both corals the main symbiotic taxon decreased in abundance. In contrast, opportunistic bacterial families, such as e.g. Vibrionaceae and Rhodobacteraceae, were more abundant in corals at impacted sites. In conclusion, microbial community response revealed a measurable footprint of anthropogenic impacts to coral ecosystems close to Jeddah, even though the corals appeared visually healthy.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Description: Altimetric data from Geosat and some critical hydrographic measurements were used to estimate in real time the mesoscale physical oceanographic environment surrounding the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) 1989 North Atlantic Bloom Experiment. Three cyclonic eddies, including an exceptionally large one, evolved and interacted over the 10 weeks of observations. Subsequent analysis of all available hydrographic data confirmed the real time estimates and provided further quantitative information concerning the mesoscale and submesoscale structure of the upper ocean. Remotely sensed indicators of near-surface chlorophyll content reveal significant biological variability on these wavelengths. The altimetric and hydrographic data have been assimilated into a dynamical model to produce optimal estimates of physical fields of interest as they evolve in time for use in physical and biological process studies
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-09-12
    Description: Improved monitoring of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in air samples is presented, achieved using a new analytical system based on preconcentration, gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry. In addition to the major HFCs, HCFCs and CFCs, the new observations include the first in situ time series of the C1–C3 PFCs (CF4, C2F6 and C3F8) and the more volatile of the HFCs (CHF3, CH2F2, CH3CF3) alongside SF6, all of which are now monitored routinely as part of the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE). Observed trends in newly monitored species are shown, obtained from 1–2 years continuous in situ air analyses at remote monitoring sites at Mace Head (Ireland) and Cape Grim (Australia). Observed deviations in the air background for these gas species are linked to modelled trajectories of air masses arriving at the monitoring stations to indicate potential source regions for emissions in Europe and Australia. In addition, preliminary estimates of 2004 mixing ratio growth rates of compounds are deduced from the observations, which highlight the importance of continuous atmospheric monitoring for verification of consumption-based emission estimates of non-CO2 greenhouse gases.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: The solar cycle (SC) effect in the lower atmosphere has been linked observationally to the Quasi-biennial Oscillation (QBO), which is generated primarily by small-scale gravity waves. Salby and Callaghan analyzed the QBO observations covering more than 40 years and found that it contains a relatively large SC signature at 20 km. Following up on a 2D study with our Numerical Spectral Model (NSM), we discuss here a 3D study in which we simulated the QBO under the influence of the SC. For a SC period of 10 years, the amplitude of the relative variations of radiative forcing is taken to vary from 0.2% at the surface to 2% at 50 km to 20% at 100 km and above. This model produces in the lower stratosphere a relatively large modulation of the QBO, which appears to be related to the SC and is in qualitative agreement with the observations. Further studies are needed, (1) to determine whether the effect is real and the results are robust and (2) to explore the mechanism(s) that may amplify the SC effect. Quasi-decadal oscillations, generated internally by the QBO interacting with the seasonal cycles, may interfere with or aid the SC effect.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: We present measurements of high fill-factor arrays of superconducting transition-edge x-ray microcalorimeters designed to provide rapid thermalization of the x-ray energy. We designed an x-ray absorber that is cantilevered over the sensitive part of the thermometer itself, making contact only at normal metal-features. With absorbers made of electroplated gold, we have demonstrated an energy resolution between 2.4 and 3.1 eV at 5.9 keV on 13 separate pixels. We have determined the thermal and electrical parameters of the devices throughout the superconducting transition, and, using these parameters, have modeled all aspects of the detector performance.
    Keywords: Instrumentation and Photography
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The Airborne Information Management System (AIMS) is currently under development at NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility. The AIMS is designed as a modular system utilizing surface mounted integrated circuits in a high-density configuration. To maintain the temperature of the integrated circuits within manufacturer's specifications, the modules are to be filled with Fluorinert FC-72. Unlike ground based liquid cooled computers, the extreme range of the ambient pressures experienced by the AIMS requires the FC-72 be contained in a closed system. This forces the latent heat absorbed during the boiling to be released during the condensation that must take within the closed module system. Natural convection and/or pumping carries the heat to the outer surface of the AIMS module where the heat transfers to the ambient air. This paper will present an evaluation of the relative effectiveness of immersed liquid cooling and air cooling of the Airborne Information Management System.
    Keywords: FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-2901
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The theory and experimental verification of a method of detecting fluid-mass loss, expansion-chamber pressure loss, or excessive vapor build-up in NASA's Airborne Information Management System (AIMS) are presented. The primary purpose of this leak-detection method is to detect the fluid-mass loss before the volume of vapor on the liquid side causes a temperature-critical part to be out of the liquid. The method detects the initial leak after the first 2.5 pct of the liquid mass has been lost, and it can be used for detecting subsequent situations including the leaking of air into the liquid chamber and the subsequent vapor build-up.
    Keywords: AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTATION
    Type: AIAA PAPER 91-1423
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: As the scientific community studies Mars remotely for signs of life and uses Martian meteorites as its only available samples, teachers, students, and the general public continue to ask, How do we know these meteorites are from Mars? This question sets the stage for a six-lesson instructional package Space Rocks Tell Their Secrets. Expanding on the short answer It s the chemistry of the rock , students are introduced to the research that reveals the true identities of the rocks. Since few high school or beginning college students have the opportunity to participate in this level of research, a slide presentation introduces them to the labs, samples, and people involved with the research. As they work through the lessons and interpret authentic data, students realize that the research is an application of two basic science concepts taught in the classroom, the electromagnetic spectrum and isotopes.
    Keywords: Space Sciences (General)
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Engaging K-12 Educators, Students, and the General Public in Space Science Exploration; LPI-Contrib-1197
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