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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2006-01-11
    Description: Using an electron scanning microscope and a high voltage microscope, a study was made of the radiation damage and structure of micron sized grains and grains separated from the 200-mesh fraction of the L-16-19 surface material sample. Then the structural features were compared with those found by studying with the same techniques grains separated from 20 different samples of lunar dust taken from the Apollo 11, Apollo 12, Apollo 14, and Apollo 15 collections. The L-16-19 sample is similar to the most intensely irradiated samples returned to earth by Apollo craft.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Soil from the Sea of Fertility (NASA-TT-F-15881); p 404-409
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: A new type of meteoritic material, intermediate in size between meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), is described. Melting and filtering of about 100 tons of blue ice near Cap Prudhomme, Antarctica, yielded 7500 or more irregular, friable particles and about 1500 melted spherules, about 100 microns in size, both showing a 'chondritic' composition suggestive of an extraterrestrial origin. Analyzed irregular particles appear to be unmelted and have similarities with the fine-grained matrix of primitive carbonaceous chondrites, but are extremely diverse in composition. Isotopic analysis of trapped neon confirms an extraterrestrial origin for 16 of 47 irregular particles and 2 of 19 spherules studied and strongly suggests that they were exposed in space as micrometeoroids. These large Antarctic micrometeorites constitute a new family, or at least a new population, of solar system objects, in a mass range corresponding to the bulk of extraterrestrial material accreted by the earth today.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Nature (ISSN 0028-0836); 351; 44-47
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2005-11-30
    Description: All mineral detectors exposed on Apollo 16 had high surface track densities probably produced by a solar flare that occurred during the mission. The heavy ions followed a power law spectrum with exponent approximately 3 down to approximately 200 KeV/nucleon. The abundance of low-energy particle tracks observed in this flare may explain the high track densities observed in lunar dust grains. Pristine heavy-particle tracks in feldspar give long tracks. Shallow pits similar to those expected from extremely heavy solar wind ions were observed in about the expected number. Initial results give a low apparent value of neutron albedo relative to theory.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA. Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center Apollo 16 Prelim. Sci. Rept.; 14 p
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Antarctic micrometeorites (AMMs) in the 100-400 microns size range are the dominant mass fraction of extraterrestrial material accreted by the Earth today. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) based technique exploited at the limits of sensitivity has been used to search for the extraterrestrial amino acids alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) and isovaline in AMMs. Five samples, each containing about 30 to 35 grains, were analyzed. All the samples possess a terrestrial amino acid component, indicated by the excess of the L-enantiomers of common protein amino acids. In only one sample (A91) was AIB found to be present at a level significantly above the background blanks. The concentration of AIB (approximately 280 ppm), and the AIB/isovaline ratio (〉 or = 10), in this sample are both much higher than in CM chondrites. The apparently large variation in the AIB concentrations of the samples suggests that AIB may be concentrated in rare subset of micrometeorites. Because the AIB/isovaline ratio in sample A91 is much larger than in CM chondrites, the synthesis of amino acids in the micrometeorite parent bodies might have involved a different process requiring an HCN-rich environment, such as that found in comets. If the present day characteristics of the meteorite and micrometeorite fluxes can be extrapolated back in time, then the flux of large carbonaceous micrometeorites could have contributed to the inventory of prebiotic molecules on the early Earth.
    Keywords: Exobiology
    Type: Origins of life and evolution of the biosphere : the journal of the International Society for the Study of the Origin of Life (ISSN 0169-6149); Volume 28; 4-6; 413-24
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2006-01-11
    Description: The lunar surface cosmic ray experiment, consisting of sets of mica, glass, plastic, and metal foil detectors, was successfully deployed on the Apollo 17 mission. One set of detectors was exposed directly to sunlight and another set was placed in shade. Preliminary scanning of the mica detectors shows the expected registration of heavy solar wind ions in the sample exposed directly to the sun. The initial results indicate a depletion of very-heavy solar wind ions. The effect is probably not real but is caused by scanning inefficiencies. Despite the lack of any pronounced solar activity, energetic heavy particles with energies extending to 1 MeV/nucleon were observed. Equal track densities of approximately 6000 tracks/cm sq 0.5 microns in length were measured in mica samples exposed in both sunlight and shade.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA. Johnson Space Center Apollo 17 Prelim. Sci. Rept.; 9 p
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2006-01-11
    Description: Samples returned to earth by Luna 16, were studied with a high voltage electron microscope for ultramicroscopic features. The following amazing features were noted in particles of surface material returned in all the lunar trips: A very high density of tracks of nuclear particles, ultrathin amorphous shells, highly rounded forms, and amazingly good ordering of crystal lattice. These features were used along with calibration experiments in solving the following problems: (1) determining the energy spectrum and chemical abundances of the very heavy nuclei in the solar wind and in the solar cosmic rays; (2) studying the past activity of the sun; (3) obtaining data on lunar dynamic processes affecting dust particles; (4) analyzing composite effects caused by penetration of solar wind into the lunar surface material; and (5) establishing the existence of the ancient lunar atmosphere and magnetic field.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Soil from the Sea of Fertility (NASA-TT-F-15881); p 388-399
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2005-02-24
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Res. in the Space Sci., Vol. 2, No. 1; 3 p
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-06-27
    Description: Horn and Von Oertzen (1967) have shown that tracks in mica are produced by an irradiation with 32-MeV O-16 ions. These tracks were attributed to K and Fe recoils produced by elastic scattering of the incident oxygen beam. In the present work an alternate explanation of their observations is provided. The measured characteristics of the tracks are shown to be compatible with theoretical predictions for production of tracks by inelastic (mostly compound nucleus) reactions with silicon and to be inconsistent with the previously proposed elastic scattering process. The possibility that the tracks are produced by contaminant ions in the beam cannot be ruled out.
    Keywords: NUCLEAR ENGINEERING
    Type: Radiation Effects; 19; 1973
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  • 9
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: The paper discusses several discoveries made in the study of lunar material. In the examination of the effects of solar wind implantations the topics covered include (1) solar wind radiation damage parameters and their aging characteristics, (2) the theory of the ancient solar wind, (3) the solar wind sputtering erosion rate, (4) the physicochemical properties of amorphous coatings, (5) maturity indexes and the macroscopic properties of the lunar regolith, (6) solar wind gas bubbles, (7) the composition of very heavy nuclei in the contemporary solar wind, and (8) track aging processes. Conclusions are drawn from the results about other extraterrestrial features such as the parent bodies of the meteorites, early solar nebulas, and interstellar clouds.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Science; 187; Jan. 17
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-10-02
    Description: Micrometeorites with sizes below 1 mm are collected in a diversity of environments such as deep-sea sediments and polar caps. Chemical, mineralogical and isotopic studies indicate that micrometeorites are closely related to primitive carbonaceous chondrites that amount to only approximately 2% of meteorite falls. While thousands of micrometeorites have been studied in detail, no micrometeorite has been found so far with an unambiguous achondritic composition and texture. One melted cosmic spherule has a low Fe/Mn ratio similar to that of eucrites, the most common basaltic meteorite group. Here we report on the texture, mineralogy, Rare Earth Elements (REEs) abundance and oxygen isotopic composition of the unmelted Antarctic micrometeorite 99-21-40 that has an unambiguous basaltic origin.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 7; LPI-Contrib-1234-Pt-7
    Format: application/pdf
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