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  • 1
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    Unknown
    Schweizerbart Science Publishers
    In:  Senckenbergiana Maritima, 10 (4/6). pp. 213-227.
    Publication Date: 2018-09-04
    Description: The pollution history of the metals iron, chromium, nickel, cobalt, zinc, lead, copper, cadmium, and mercury in a sediment profile from the German Bight (southeastern part of the North Sea; Förstner & Reineck, 1974) has been re-interpreted according to new radiometric age data from 210Pb and 137Cs concentrations. Between two units of relative uniform sedimentation - approx. 18 mm/y at 7-19 cm sediment depth and approx. 16 mm/y for the core section from 28-50 cm - a major hiatus and an interval of abnormally low sedimentation rate has been detected (19-28 cm) indicating that sediments deposited at the beginning of the century are directly covered by the most recent sediments. Contamination by Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd and Hg has increased since the second half of the last century, probably due to higher metal inputs from both fossil fuel burning and sewage effluents. The more recent increase of iron, chromium, nickel, and cobalt is possibly related to the dumping of acid iron waste from titanium oxide production.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    American Geophysical Union
    In:  Paleoceanography, 5 (5). pp. 811-821.
    Publication Date: 2017-05-10
    Description: Profiles of the 230Th concentration in Mn crusts from the central Pacific Ocean measured at extremely high depth resolution reveal that the growth rates of Mn crusts are influenced by climate. Based on a “constant flux model” the sections of maximum 230Th concentration correspond to periods of slow growth during glacial stages. Fast growth occurred during interglacial stages 1, 5, and 7, probably due to a larger supply of Mn oxides from the water column. High-resolution profiles of 230Th and 10Be in sediment cores from high biological productivity areas display radioisotope maxima in the interglacial stages and minima during glacial periods, the ratio of the fluxes of 10Be/230Th being ≥4. The only exceptions are observed at 135 and 270 kyr B.P., where the ratio of the fluxes is as low as 0.1 to 0.3. We presume that this “230Th anomaly” reflects short periods of time at the end of glacials when precipitation of MnO2 occurred. This hypothesis is confirmed by peaks of Mn observed in sediment cores mainly at the transitions from glacial to interglacial stages. The standing crops of Mn in these layers suggest release of Mn2+ from the sediments during glacial stages and buildup of Mn in the water column to concentrations of up to 10 µmol/L.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-03-08
    Description: The 10Be records of four sediment cores forming a transect from the Norwegian Sea at 70°N (core 23059) via the Fram Strait (core 23235) to the Arctic Ocean at 86°N (cores 1533 and 1524) were measured at a high depth resolution. Although the material in all the cores was controlled by different sedimentological regimes, the 10Be records of these cores were superimposed by glacial/interglacial changes in the sedimentary environment. Core sections with high 10Be concentrations ( 〉 1 · 109 at/g) are related to interglacial stages and core sections with low10Be concentrations ( 〈 0.5 · 109 at/g) are related to glacial stages. Climatic transitions (e.g., Termination II, 5/6) are marked by drastic changes in the 10Be concentrations of up to one order of magnitude. The average 10Be concentrations for each climatic stage show an inverse relationship to their corresponding sedimentation rates, indicating that the 10Be records are the result of dilution with more or less terrigenous ice-rafted material. However, there are strong changes in the 10Be fluxes (e.g., Termination II) into the sediments which may also account for the observed oscillations. Most likely, both processes affected the 10Be records equally, amplifying the contrast between lower (glacials) and higher (interglacials) 10Be concentrations. The sharp contrast of high and low 10Be concentrations at climatic stage boundaries are an independent proxy for climatic and sedimentary change in the Nordic Seas and can be applied for stratigraphic dating (10Be stratigraphy) of sediment cores from the northern North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
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    Unknown
    Elsevier
    In:  Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 149 . pp. 353-360.
    Publication Date: 2017-02-13
    Description: Here we present the first high precision 231Protactinium measurements in a manganese crust applying thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) using the double filament technique. The detection limit using TIMS is at least one order of magnitude lower, the statistical uncertainty 6–8 times better than for α-spectrometry. Thus, older sections of manganese crust VA13/2 from the Northern Equatorial Pacific could be measured precisely for their 231Pa activity. Our results reveal significant variations in 231Paxs activity for the last 150 ka which corroborate existing α-spectrometric data. If the growth rate was constant between 0 and 450 ka, the protactinium flux from the water column into manganese encrustations must have been variable. Thus, 231Paxs is not suitable for dating marine Mn/Fe deposits.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-02-27
    Description: Biogenic particle fluxes from highly productive surface waters, boundary scavenging, and hydrothermal activity are the main factors influencing the deposition of radionuclides in the area of the Galapagos microplate, eastern Equatorial Pacific. In order to evaluate the importance of these three processes throughout the last 100 kyr, concentrations of the radionuclides 10Be, 230Th, and 231Pa, and of Mn and Fe were measured at high resolution in sediment samples from two gravity cores KLH 068 and KLH 093. High biological productivity in the surface waters overlying the investigated area has led to 10Be and 231Pa fluxes exceeding production during at least the last 30 kyr and probably the last 100 kyr. However, during periods of high productivity at the up welling centers off Peru and extension of the equatorial high-productivity zone, a relative loss of 10Be and 231Pa may have occurred in these sediment cores because of boundary scavenging. The effects of hydrothermal activity were investigated by comparing the 230Thex concentrations to the Mn/Fe ratios and by comparing the fluxes of 230Th and 10Be which exceed production. The results suggest an enhanced hydrothermal influence during isotope stages 4 and 5 and to a lesser extent during isotope stage 1 in core KLH 093. During isotope stages 2 and 3, the hydrothermal supply of Mn was deposited elsewhere, probably because of changes in current regime or deep water oxygenation. A strong increase of the Mn/Fe ratio at the beginning of climatic stage 1 which is not accompanied by an increase of the 230Thex concentration is interpreted to be an effect of Mn remobilization and reprecipitation in the sediment.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-01-18
    Description: Biogenic particle fluxes from highly productive surface waters, boundary scavenging, and hydrothermal activity are the main factors influencing the deposition of radionuclides in the area of the Galapagos microplate, eastern Equatorial Pacific. In order to evaluate the importance of these three processes throughout the last 100 kyr, concentrations of the radionuclides 10Be, 230Th, and 231Pa, and of Mn and Fe were measured at high resolution in sediment samples from two gravity cores KLH 068 and KLH 093. High biological productivity in the surface waters overlying the investigated area has led to 10Be and 231Pa fluxes exceeding production during at least the last 30 kyr and probably the last 100 kyr. However, during periods of high productivity at the up welling centers off Peru and extension of the equatorial high-productivity zone, a relative loss of 10Be and 231Pa may have occurred in these sediment cores because of boundary scavenging. The effects of hydrothermal activity were investigated by comparing the 230Thex concentrations to the Mn/Fe ratios and by comparing the fluxes of 230Th and 10Be which exceed production. The results suggest an enhanced hydrothermal influence during isotope stages 4 and 5 and to a lesser extent during isotope stage 1 in core KLH 093. During isotope stages 2 and 3, the hydrothermal supply of Mn was deposited elsewhere, probably because of changes in current regime or deep water oxygenation. A strong increase of the Mn/Fe ratio at the beginning of climatic stage 1 which is not accompanied by an increase of the 230Thex concentration is interpreted to be an effect of Mn remobilization and reprecipitation in the sediment.
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-11-14
    Description: The reconstruction of geomagnetic field intensity variations during the last 200 kyr from paleomagnetic data is at present the subject of numerous studies and major debate. There is currently no generally accepted record. Here we present a global stacked record of (230Thex-normalized)10Be deposition in marine sediments representing relative variations in 10Be production rate which are translated into field intensity variations. The record shows major periods during which the field intensity was between 10% and 40% of the present day value; namely 30–42, 60–75, 85–110 and 180–192 kyr B.P. Our results are compared to independently derived paleomagnetic studies and Th/U calibrations of 14C dates on corals. During most of the observed period the geomagnetic field intensity was weaker than today, resulting in an overall 30% reduced value for the last 200 kyr.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-05-25
    Description: Oceanic and atmospheric circulation patterns varied considerably during the Tertiary and Quaternary and influenced the geochemical cycles of elements in seawater. We report the first resolution lead and neodymium isotopic record of such changes at a high time resolution in two depths profiles from a hydrogenous FeMn crust. The crust, Va13-2, is located in the central Pacific (146°W, 9°25′N, 4830 m) and has previously been dated by 230Th and 10Be. The first profile was drilled with a sample time resolution of ∼3 kyr and allows evaluation of short-term changes to lead and neodymium sources to central Pacific seawater over the last 400 kyr (marine δ18O stages 2 to 11). Longer-term changes were monitored at lower time resolution in a second profile to an age of 10 Ma. Short-term variations in lead and neodymium isotope ratios are resolved in the high resolution profile (0 to 400 kyr). Superimposed on the short-term variations is a secular decrease in Full-size image (〈1 K) ratios beginning at ∼130 kyr in marine δ18O stage 5, implying a change in the lead sources to the central Pacific. Lead and neodymium isotopic compositions indicate an increased influence from Central American eolian sources to Pacific seawater at this time. Lead isotopes are found to be statistically more variable during interglacial than glacial periods. These observations are supported by the greater eolian dust fluxes found in sediment cores from the equatorial Pacific during interglacial stages. The most important paleoceanographic event of the last 10 Ma to affect Pacific seawater was the closure of the Panama gateway. Changes in lead and neodymium isotopes in Val3-2 during the last 10 Ma occurred along with gradual closure of the Panama straits. However, these changes did not occur in tandem: while neodymium isotope ratios increase between 10 and 8 Ma, lead isotope ratios remain constant. In contrast, the period 7 to 1 Ma is marked by a secular increase in lead isotope ratios but nearly constant neodymium. These changes are consistent with a source of radiogenic lead and neodymium conveyed by the Circumpolar Current into the Pacific, rather than by the Panama gateway, and involve 20 to 40% Southern Component Water (SCW) input of lead and neodymium. Modelling of lead and neodymium isotopic mixing between the different water masses involved in generating Pacific deep waters lead us to the following conclusions: (1) Small variations in the strength and composition of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) have a relatively minor effect on the amounts of lead and neodymium from SCW contributing to the Pacific and (2) an enhanced SCW flow with an open isthmus of Panama, as suggested by General Circulation Models (GCM), requires a corresponding reduction in NADW Pb and Nd contributions to SCW. The general agreement between the isotopic compositions of surface layers of Mn nodules, integrated over such long time intervals, and those of present-day bottom waters at their respective locations show that the present-day ocean circulation pattern has dominated through the Pleistocene. Our study of Mn crust Va13-2 shows that shorter-term changes in lead and neodymium isotope ratios can be resolved, provided that such crusts are sampled at an appropriate time resolution.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 9
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    Springer-Verlag
    In:  In: Constraints on the Ocean's Role in Global Change. , ed. by Zahn, R. and et al., Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg-New York-Tokyo, pp. 87-104.
    Publication Date: 2012-01-27
    Type: Book chapter , PeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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