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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The objective is to gain a thorough understanding of the flow field in a turbine stage including three-dimensional inviscid and viscid effects, unsteady flow field, rotor-stator interaction effects, unsteady blade pressures, shear stress, and velocity field in rotor passages. The performance of the turbine facility at the design condition is measured and compared with the design distribution. The data on the nozzle vane static pressure and wake characteristics are presented and interpreted. The wakes are found to be highly three-dimensional, with substantial radial inward velocity at most spanwise locations.
    Keywords: FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center, Structural Integrity and Durability of Reusable Space Propulsion Systems; p 283-292
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The Hayabusa spacecraft made two touchdowns on the surface of Asteroid 25143 Itokawa on November 20th and 26th, 2005. The Asteroid 25143 Itokawa is classified as an S-type asteroid and inferred to consist of materials similar to ordinary chondrites or primitive achondrites [1]. Near-infrared spectroscopy by the Hayabusa spacecraft proposed that the surface of this body has an olivine-rich mineral assemblage potentially similar to that of LL5 or LL6 chondrites with different degrees of space weathering [2]. The spacecraft made the reentry into the Earth s atmosphere on June 12th, 2010 and the sample capsule was successfully recovered in Australia on June 13th, 2010. Although the sample collection processes on the Itokawa surface had not been made by the designed operations, more than 1,500 grains were identified as rocky particles in the sample curation facility of JAXA, and most of them were judged to be of extraterrestrial origin, and definitely from Asteroid Itokawa on November 17th, 2010 [3]. Although their sizes are mostly less than 10 microns, some larger grains of about 100 microns or larger were also included. The mineral assembly is olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase, iron sulfide and iron metal. The mean mineral compositions are consistent with the results of near-infrared spectroscopy from Hayabusa spacecraft [2], but the variations suggest that the petrologic type may be smaller than the spectroscopic results. Several tens of grains of relatively large sizes among the 1,500 grains will be selected by the Hayabusa sample curation team for preliminary examination [4]. Each grain will be subjected to one set of preliminary examinations, i.e., micro-tomography, XRD, XRF, TEM, SEM, EPMA and SIMS in this sequence. The preliminary examination will start from the last week of January 2011. Therefore, samples for isotope analyses in this study will start from the last week of February 2011. By the time of the LPSC meeting we will have measured the oxygen and magnesium isotopic composition of several grains. We will present the first results from the isotope analyses that will have been performed.
    Keywords: Space Sciences (General)
    Type: JSC-CN-22697 , 42nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference; 7-11 Mar. 2011; The Woodlands, TX; United States
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Two thermally-metamorphosed ordinary chondrite regolith breccias, Monahans 1998 (H5) and Zag (H3-6) contain fluid inclusion-bearing halite (NaCl) crystals, dated by K-Ar, Rb-Sr and I-Xe systematics to be approx. 4.5 billion years old. Heating/freezing studies of the aqueous fluid inclusions demonstrated that they were trapped near 25 C, and their continued presence in the halite grains requires that their incorporation into the H chondrite asteroid was post metamorphism.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: JSC-CN-28791 , 2013 Meteoritical Society Meeting; 29 Jul. - 2 Aug. 2013; Edmonton; Canada
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: Over the past three decades we have become increasingly aware of the fundamental importance of water, and aqueous alteration, on primitive solar-system bodies. Some carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites have been altered by interactions with liquid water within the first 10 million years after formation of their parent asteroids. Millimeter to centimeter-sized aggregates of purple halite containing aqueous fluid inclusions were found in the matrix of two freshly-fallen brecciated H chondrite falls, Monahans (1998, hereafter simply "Monahans") (H5) and Zag (H3-6) (Zolensky et al., 1999; Whitby et al., 2000; Bogard et al., 2001) In order to understand origin and evolution of the aqueous fluids inside these inclusions we much measure the actual fluid composition, and also learn the O and H isotopic composition of the water. It has taken a decade for laboratory analytical techniques to catch up to these particular nanomole-sized aqueous samples. We have recently been successful in (1) measuring the isotopic composition of H and O in the water in a few fluid inclusions from the Zag and Monahans halite, (2) mineralogical characterization of the solid mineral phases associated with the aqueous fluids within the halite, and (3) the first minor element analyses of the fluid itself. A Cameca ims-1270 equipped with a cryo-sample-stage of Hokkaido University was specially prepared for the O and H isotopic measurements. The cryo-sample-stage (Techno. I. S. Corp.) was cooled down to c.a. -190 C using liquid nitrogen at which the aqueous fluid in inclusions was frozen. We excavated the salt crystal surfaces to expose the frozen fluids using a 15 keV Cs+ beam and measured negative secondary ions. The secondary ions from deep craters of approximately 10 m in depth emitted stably but the intensities changed gradually during measurement cycles because of shifting states of charge compensation, resulting in rather poor reproducibility of multiple measurements of standard fluid inclusions of +/- 90 0/00(2 sigma) for delta D, and +/- 29 0/00 (2 sigma) for delta O-18. On the other hand, the reproducibility of Delta O-17 is plus or minus 8 /00 (2 sigma ) because the observed variations of isotope ratios follow a mass dependent fractionation law. Variations of delta D of the aqueous fluids range over sog,a 330(90; 2 sigma ) to +1200(90) 0/00 for Monahans and delta 300(96) 0/00 to +90(98)0/00 for Zag. Delta O-17 of aqueous fluids range over delta 16(22) 0/00 to +18(10) 0/00 for Monahans and +3(10) 0/00 to +27(11) 0/00 for Zag. These variations are larger than the reproducibility of standard analyses and suggest that isotope equilibria were under way in the fluids before trapping into halite. The mean values of delta D and Delta O-17 are +290 0/00 and +9 0/00, respectively. The mean values and the variations of these fluids are different from the representative values of ordinary chondrites, verifying our working hypothesis that the fluid inclusion-bearing halites were not indigenous to the H chondrite parent-asteroid but rather represent exogenous material delivered onto the asteroid from a separate cryovolcanically-active body. This initial isotopic work has demonstrated the feasibility of the measurements, but also revealed sample processing and analytical shortcomings that are now being addressed. Examination of solid mineral inclusions within Monahans and Zag halite grains by confocal Raman spectroscopy at the Carnegie Geophysical Laboratory has revealed them to be metal, magnetite, forsteritic olivine (Fo.98), macromolecular carbon (MMC), pyroxenes, feldspar with Raman spectral affinity to anorthoclase and, probably, fine-grained lepidocrocite (FeO(OH)). In addition, one inclusion features aliphatic material with Raman spectral features consistent with a mixture of short-chain aliphatic compounds. We have initiated analyses of the bulk composition of the fluids within the inclusions in Zag and Monahans halites at Virginia Tech by LA ICPMS using angilent 7500ce quadrupole ICPMS and a Lambda Physik GeoLas 193 nm excimer laser ablation system. Preliminary results reveal that the inclusion aqueous fluids contain highly charged cations of Ca, Mg and Fe. The minerals and compounds discovered thus far within Monahans/Zag halites are indicative of an originating body at least partly composed of unequilibrated anhydrous materials (high Fo olivine, pyroxenes, feldspars, possibly the metal) which were subjected to aqueous alteration (the halite parent brine) and containing a light organic component (the short-chain aliphatic compounds). This material was ejected from the originating body with little or no disruption, as evidenced with the presence of fluid inclusions. An actively geysering body similar to modern Enceladus (Postberg et al., 2011) may be a reasonable analogue in this respect. Also, the originating body should have been within close proximity to the H chondrite parent in order to generate the number of halite grains seen in Monahans and Zag. Other candidates for Monahans/Zag halite parent bodie(s) may include a young Ceres with its possible liquid ocean, or Main Belt comets.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: JSC-CN-26166 , Pan-American Current Research on Fluid Inclusions (PACROFI-XI); 18-20 Jun. 2012; Ontario, Montreal; Canada
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-27
    Description: Zag and Monahans (1998) are H chondrite regolith breccias that contain 4.5 GY old halite crystals which in turn contain abundant inclusions of aqueous fluids, solids and organics. We have previously proposed that these halites originated on a hydrovolcanically-active C class asteroid, probably Ceres, or a trans-neptunian object (TNO - or P- or D-class asteroid) injected into the inner solar system during giant planet migration. We have begun a detailed analysis of organics and other solids trapped within the halite, which we hypothesize sample the mantle of the halite parent object, and are examining a halite-bearing C1 chondrite clast also found in Zag, which is similar to the solids in the halite. These investigations will reveal the water-rock interactions on the hydrovolcanically-active parent world.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration; Geosciences (General)
    Type: LPI Paper No. 6041 , LPI Contrib. No. 2085 , JSC-E-DAA-TN56316
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