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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-11-27
    Description: The neodymium isotope proxy has become a valuable tool for the reconstruction of past ocean water mass provenance and mixing. For its accurate application, knowledge about the origin and preservation of Nd in sedimentary archives is crucial. Recently, concerns have emerged regarding the applicability of neodymium isotopes as a conservative palaeo water mass tracer, given potential Nd fluxes from sediments into bottom waters (Abbott et al., 2015a) and inferred relabelling of ocean waters by settling detrital material (Roberts and Piotrowski, 2015). Consequently, a decoupling of water mass provenance and proxy variations may arise. We investigate the mobility of Nd around extreme detrital sedimentation events such as glacial ice rafting pulses and turbidite deposition in the Northeast Atlantic. The constructed records from sediment leachates span extreme Nd isotope variations including volcanic (εNd ∼ 0) and Laurentian (εNd ∼ −27) sources. We find that Nd was released into pore waters from reactive detritus inside some detrital layers during early diagenesis, thereby overprinting any archived bottom water Nd signature and precluding the reconstruction of past water mass provenance during the affected time intervals. However, we do not observe any definite indication of diffusive vertical migration of Nd into adjacent layers. Furthermore, bottom water Nd isotope signatures were not modified to a measurable degree by any potential benthic flux of Nd during the deposition of these detrital sediment layers. Consequently, the Nd isotope composition of the pelagic glacial Northeast Atlantic water masses were resilient to such episodic large detrital fluxes. Apart from extreme local sedimentation events, we confirm the presence of detritally overprinted deep waters north of 47°N during the peak glacial from comparison of Northeast Atlantic depth transects. We furthermore suggest that the sensitivity of deep waters to this overprinting effect increased during periods of reduced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and elevated ice rafting. Overall, our study demonstrates that a thorough evaluation of the proportion of Nd originating from physical water mass advection versus in situ chemical inputs is crucial for the reliable application of Nd isotopes as a water mass tracer.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
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    Elsevier
    In:  Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 149 . pp. 353-360.
    Publication Date: 2017-02-13
    Description: Here we present the first high precision 231Protactinium measurements in a manganese crust applying thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) using the double filament technique. The detection limit using TIMS is at least one order of magnitude lower, the statistical uncertainty 6–8 times better than for α-spectrometry. Thus, older sections of manganese crust VA13/2 from the Northern Equatorial Pacific could be measured precisely for their 231Pa activity. Our results reveal significant variations in 231Paxs activity for the last 150 ka which corroborate existing α-spectrometric data. If the growth rate was constant between 0 and 450 ka, the protactinium flux from the water column into manganese encrustations must have been variable. Thus, 231Paxs is not suitable for dating marine Mn/Fe deposits.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The design of an experimental lunar drill and a facility to test the drill under simulated lunar conditions is described. The drill utilizes a polycrystalline diamond compact drag bit and an auger to mechanically remove cuttings from the hole. The drill will be tested in a vacuum chamber and powered through a vacuum seal by a drive mechanism located above the chamber. A general description of the design is provided followed by a detailed description and analysis of each component. Recommendations for the further development of the design are included.
    Keywords: MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
    Type: ME-4182 , NASA-CR-183052 , NAS 1.26:183052
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: High resolution digitized images of M81 in the radio continuum, H alpha, H I, and I band are used to see how well various density wave models agree in detail with observations. It was found that the observed width of the nonthermal radio arms favors a cloudy version of a density wave model. The radial distribution of the set of giant radio H II regions disagrees with the simple expression of Shu and Visser for star formation by a density wave. The observed displacements of the giant radio H II regions from the spiral velocity shock indicate that some revisions in the details of the ballistic particle model of Leisawitz and Bash are necessary.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA, Washington Star Formation in Galaxies; p 227-233
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The development of a miniature multifunction turbomachinery shaft displacement sensor using state-of-the-art non-contract capacitive sensing technology is described. Axial displacement, radial displacement, and speed are sensed using a single probe within the envelope normally required for a single function. A survey of displacement sensing technology is summarized including inductive, capacitive, optical and ultrasonic techniques. The design and operation of an experimental triple function sensor is described. Test results are included showing calibration tests and simultaneous dynamic testing of multiple functions. Recommendations for design changes are made to improve low temperature performance, reliability, and for design of a flight type signal conditioning unit.
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: NASA-CR-182279 , NAS 1.26:182279
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-09-17
    Description: Cold-water corals are widely distributed along the Atlantic continental margin with varying growth patterns in relation to their specific environment. Here, we investigate the long-term development of cold-water corals that once thrived on a low-latitude (17°40′N) cold-water coral mound in the Banda Mound Province off Mauritania during the last glacial–interglacial cycle. U/Th dates obtained from 20 specimens of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa, revealed three distinct periods of coral growth during the last glacial at 65 to 57 kyr BP, 45 to 32 kyr BP and 14 kyr BP, thus comprising the cool periods of Marine Isotopic Stages (MIS) 2–4. These coral growth periods occur during periods of increased productivity in the region, emphasizing that productivity seems to be the major steering factor for coral growth off Mauritania, which is one of the major upwelling regions in the world. This pattern differs from the well studied coral mounds off Ireland, where the current regime predominantly influences the prosperity of the cold-water corals. Moreover, coral growth off Ireland takes place during rather warm interglacial and interstadial periods, whereas off Mauritania coral growth is restricted to glacial and stadial periods. However, the on-mound sedimentation patterns off Mauritania largely resemble the observations reported from the Irish mounds. The bulk of the preserved sediments derives from periods of coral growth, whereas during periods without corals hardly any net sedimentation or mound growth took place.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-09-21
    Description: Ecological and taxonomic study of the mollusk-rich fauna of the Golfe d’Arguin, North Mauritania, investigates the various environmental influences affecting this tropical shelf. The upwelling of nutrient-rich waters leads to a highly productive environment under tropical conditions. The resulting mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sediment contains a large portion of calcareous components produced by heterotrophic organisms— e.g., mollusks, foraminifers, worms, barnacles—that are reworked on the open shelf. On the basis of mollusk assemblages, six taphocoenoses are defined, all being characterized by a mixed fauna of tropical (e.g., Tellina densestriata), subtropical (e.g., Macoma cumana) and temperate (e.g., Spisula subtruncata) species. Differences between the assemblages are related to the medium—grain size ranging from mud to gravel—that results from local hydrodynamic conditions and water depth. Among carbonate grains, Donax burnupi shells are very abundant in the swellexposed, northern part of the Golfe d’Arguin and reflect the tropical to subtropical, high-energy, and high-nutrient waters. Mollusk assemblages are demonstrated to be a sensitive tool for deciphering complex environmental conditions in sedimentary archives.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
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    In:  [Poster] In: International Conference on Paleoceanography 2016, 28.08.-02.09.2016, Utrecht, Netherlands .
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-03-21
    Description: Thorium- and uranium isotopes were measured in a diagenetic manganese nodule from the Peru basin applying alpha- and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Alpha-counting of 62 samples was carried out with a depth resolution of 0.4 mm to gain a high-resolution230Thexcess profile. In addition, 17 samples were measured with TIMS to obtain precise isotope concentrations and isotope ratios. We got values of 0.06–0.59 ppb (230Th), 0.43–1.40 ppm (232Th), 0.09–0.49 ppb (234U) and 1.66–8.24 ppm (238U). The uranium activity ratio in the uppermost samples (1–6 mm) and in two further sections in the nodule at 12.5±1.0 mm and 27.3–33.5 mm comes close to the present ocean water value of 1.144±0.004. In two other sections of the nodule, this ratio is significantly higher, probably reflecting incorporation of diagenetic uranium. The upper 25 mm section of the Mn nodule shows a relatively smooth exponential decrease in the230Thexcess concentration (TIMS). The slope of the best fit yields a growth rate of 110 mm/Ma up to 24.5 mm depth. The section from 25 to 30.3 mm depth shows constant230Thexcess concentrations probably due to growth rates even faster than those in the top section of the nodule. From 33 to 50 mm depth, the growth rate is approximately 60 mm/Ma. Two layers in the nodule with distinct laminations (11–15 and 28–33 mm depth) probably formed during the transition from isotopic stage 8 to 7 and in stage 5e, respectively. The Mn/Fe ratio shows higher values during interglacials 5 and 7, and lower ones during glacials 4 and 6. A comparison of our data with data from adjacent sediment cores suggests (a) a variable supply of hydrothermal Mn to sediments and Mn nodules of the Peru basin or (b) suboxic conditions at the water sediment interface during periods with lower Mn/Fe ratios.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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