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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: For 2 weeks continuous imaging, photometry, and polarimetry observations were made of Jupiter and the Galilean satellites in red and blue light from Pioneer 11. Measurements of Jupiter's north and south polar regions were possible because the spacecraft trajectory was highly inclined to the planet's equatorial plane. One of the highest resolution images obtained is presented here along with a comparison of a sample of our photometric and polarimetric data with a simple model. The data seem consistent with increased molecular scattering at high latitudes.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Science; 188; May 2
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: Human presence in space, whether permanent or temporary, is accompanied by the presence of microbes. However, the extent of microbial changes in response to spaceflight conditions and the corresponding changes to infectious disease risk is unclear. Previous studies have indicated that spaceflight weakens the immune system in humans and animals. In addition, preflight and in-flight monitoring of the International Space Station (ISS) and other spacecraft indicates the presence of opportunistic pathogens and the potential of obligate pathogens. Altered antibiotic resistance of microbes in flight has also been shown. As astronauts and cosmonauts live for longer periods in a closed environment, especially one using recycled water and air, there is an increased risk to crewmembers of infectious disease events occurring in-flight. Therefore, understanding how the space environment affects microorganisms and their disease potential is critically important for spaceflight missions and requires further study. The goal of this flight experiment, operationally called MICROBE, is to utilize three model microbial pathogens, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans to examine the global effects of spaceflight on microbial gene expression and virulence attributes. Specifically, the aims are (1) to perform microarray-mediated gene expression profiling of S. typhimurium, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans, in response to spaceflight in comparison to ground controls and (2) to determine the effect of spaceflight on the virulence potential of these microorganisms immediately following their return from spaceflight using murine models. The model microorganisms were selected as they have been isolated from preflight or in-flight monitoring, represent different degrees of pathogenic behavior, are well characterized, and have sequenced genomes with available microarrays. In particular, extensive studies of S. typhimurium by the Principal Investigator, Dr. Nickerson, using ground-based analog systems demonstrate important changes in the genotypic, phenotypic, and virulence characteristics of this pathogen resulting from exposure to a flight-like environment (i.e. modeled microgravity).
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: NASA HRP Investigators'' Workshop; 12-14 Feb. 2007; United States
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  • 3
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    In:  Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 27 (2). pp. 255-258.
    Publication Date: 2018-05-24
    Description: Cylindrical samples of sand consolidated with tetrahydrofuran hydrate were tested for their compressive strength and creep behavior under uniaxial compression. The samples were 15 cm in length and 7.5 cm in diameter and were tested at −10 °C. The results, when combined with our previous measurements on similar samples at −6 °C, show that the material becomes stronger by about 10% with decrease in temperature; otherwise, the slopes of the peak stress – strain rate curves are the same. These results are similar to those of sand consolidated with ice, except that in the latter case the increase in strength over the same temperature range is about 30%. Furthermore, the slope of the peak stress – strain rate curve for the hydrate-consolidated sand is almost zero, whereas for the ice-consolidated sand it is quite steep. Consequently, at strain rates below 10−5 s−1 the hydrate-consolidated sand is stronger, whereas at strain rates above 10−5 s−1 the ice-consolidated sand is the stronger material. Noticeable differences were also observed in the creep behavior of the hydrate- and ice-consolidated sands. At −10 °C, ice-consolidated sand failed in about 15 h under a stress of about 7 MPa, whereas hydrate-consolidated sand failed after 52.3 h under a stress of 12.2 MPa and some samples did not fail even after 540 h when subjected to a stress of 9.3 MPa.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-11-05
    Description: Recognizing the importance of methane hydrate research and the need for a coordinated effort, the United States Congress enacted the Methane Hydrate Research and Development Act of 2000. At the same time, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry in Japan launched a research program to develop plans for a methane hydrate exploratory drilling project in the Nankai Trough. India, China, the Republic of Korea, and other nations also have established large methane hydrate research and development programs. Government-funded scientific research drilling expeditions and production test studies have provided a wealth of information on the occurrence of methane hydrates in nature. Numerous studies have shown that the amount of gas stored as methane hydrates in the world may exceed the volume of known organic carbon sources. However, methane hydrates represent both a scientific and technical challenge, and much remains to be learned about their characteristics and occurrence in nature. Methane hydrate research in recent years has mostly focused on: (1) documenting the geologic parameters that control the occurrence and stability of methane hydrates in nature, (2) assessing the volume of natural gas stored within various methane hydrate accumulations, (3) analyzing the production response and characteristics of methane hydrates, (4) identifying and predicting natural and induced environmental and climate impacts of natural methane hydrates, (5) analyzing the methane hydrate role as a geohazard, (6) establishing the means to detect and characterize methane hydrate accumulations using geologic and geophysical data, and (7) establishing the thermodynamic phase equilibrium properties of methane hydrates as a function of temperature, pressure, and gas composition. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Consortium for Ocean Leadership (COL) combined their efforts in 2012 to assess the contributions that scientific drilling has made and could continue to make to advance our understanding of methane hydrates in nature. COL assembled a Methane Hydrate Project Science Team with members from academia, industry, and government. This Science Team worked with COL and DOE to develop and host the Methane Hydrate Community Workshop, which surveyed a substantial cross section of the methane hydrate research community for input on the most important research developments in our understanding of methane hydrates in nature and their potential role as an energy resource, a geohazard, and/or as an agent of global climate change. Our understanding of how methane hydrates occur in nature is still growing and evolving, and it is known with certainty that field, laboratory, and modeling studies have contributed greatly to our understanding of hydrates in nature and will continue to be a critical source of the information needed to advance our understanding of methane hydrates.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Venus topography can be mapped morphostructurally to reveal nested hierarchical patterns of quasi-circular upland/lowland complexes. These patterns are interpreted as surficial effects of hierarchically structured, long-acting mantle convection. Beta Regio, Alpha Regio, and Artemis illustrate this process of dynamical interaction between the deforming lithosphere and the convecting mantle.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 471-472
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Magnetic field data from ISEE-3 in the distant magnetotail at crossings of the field reversal (or neutral sheet) region were analyzed to determine the instantaneous direction of the normal component Bz at the crossing. A crossing identified as being almost always tailward of the steady-state X-line was selected. Data for 1 hr are discussed to illustrate difficulties. One particular smooth crossing shows that complicated microstructure can occur in times less than 1 min. Averaging over long times may eliminate essential information. Inspection of the magnetic field data at the highest resolution, however, shows that the direction of the plasma sheet flows and the sense of Bz across the neutral sheet do not always agree with the reconnection models. Rather, they indicate that the low latitude boundary layer may play a significant role in the dynamics of the magnetotail.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES (GENERAL)
    Type: CNES Proceedings of a Conference on the Comparative Study of Magnetospheric Systems; p 315-322
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: A series of realistic simulation studies is being conducted as a cooperative effort between the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), the National Meteorological Center (NMC), and the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences (GLAS) to provide a quantitative assessment of the potential impact of proposed observation systems on large scale numerical weather prediction. A special objective of this project is to avoid the unrealistic character of earlier simulation studies.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Res. Rev., 1983; p 1
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Technology needed to predict damage and hazards from explosions of propellant tanks and bursts of pressure vessels, both near and far from these explosions is introduced. Data are summarized in graphs, tables, and nomographs.
    Keywords: PROPELLANTS AND FUELS
    Type: NASA-CR-134906 , REPT-02-4130
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 9
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Proposed network of solar optical and radio telescopes used to help provide astronaut dose reduction
    Keywords: PROPULSION SYSTEMS
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-06-05
    Description: The results of an analytical and experimental study of the structural response and strength of tile-reinforced components of the Composite Armored Vehicle are presented. The analyses are based on specialized finite element techniques that properly account for the effects of the interaction between the armor tiles, the surrounding elastomers, and the glass-epoxy sublaminates. To validate the analytical predictions, tests were conducted with panels subjected to three-point bending loads. The sequence of progressive failure events for the laminates is described. This paper describes the results of Part 1 of a study of the response and strength of tile-reinforced composite armor.
    Keywords: Composite Materials
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