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  • 1
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Canton, MA : Science History Publ
    Call number: IASS 16.90605
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: IX, 373 S , Ill., Kt , 24 cm
    ISBN: 088135385X
    Language: English
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: Subtropical gyres are the oceanic regions where plastic litter accumulates over long timescales, exposing surrounding oceanic islands to plastic contamination, with potentially severe consequences on marine life. Islands’ exposure to such contaminants, littered over long distances in marine or terrestrial habitats, is due to the ocean currents that can transport plastic over long ranges. Here, this issue is addressed for the Easter Island ecoregion (EIE). High-resolution ocean circulation models are used with a Lagrangian particle-tracking tool to identify the connectivity patterns of the EIE with industrial fishing areas and coastline regions of the Pacific basin. Connectivity patterns for “virtual” particles either floating (such as buoyant macroplastics) or neutrally-buoyant (smaller microplastics) are investigated. We find that the South American shoreline between 20°S and 40°S, and the fishing zone within international waters off Peru (20°S, 80°W) are associated with the highest probability for debris to reach the EIE, with transit times under 2 years. These regions coincide with the most-densely populated coastal region of Chile and the most-intensely fished region in the South Pacific. The findings offer potential for mitigating plastic contamination reaching the EIE through better upstream waste management. Results also highlight the need for international action plans on this important issue.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
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  • 3
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    Springer International Publishing
    In:  In: Prefoldins: the new chaperones. , ed. by Djouder, N. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 1106 . Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 1-10. ISBN 978-3-030-00737-9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-03
    Description: Prefoldin is a co-chaperone that evolutionarily originates in archaea, is universally present in all eukaryotes and acts as a co-chaperone by facilitating the supply of unfolded or partially folded substrates to class II chaperonins. Eukaryotic prefoldin is known mainly for its functional relevance in the cytoplasmic folding of actin and tubulin monomers during cytoskeleton assembly. However, the role of prefoldin in chaperonin-mediated folding is not restricted to cytoskeleton components, but extends to both the assembly of other cytoplasmic complexes and the maintenance of functional proteins by avoiding protein aggregation and facilitating proteolytic degradation. Evolution has favoured the diversification of prefoldin subunits, and has allowed the so-called prefoldin-like complex, with specialised functions, to appear. Subunits of both canonical and prefoldin-like complexes have also been found in the nucleus of yeast and metazoan cells, where they have been functionally connected with different gene expression steps. Plant prefoldin has also been detected in the nucleus and is physically associated with a gene regulator. Here we summarise information available on the functional involvement of prefoldin in gene expression, and discuss the implications of these results for the relationship between prefoldin structure and function.
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-09-24
    Description: While observations suggest a long-term expansion of the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) in the South Eastern Pacific (SEP), it also exhibits a large interannual to decadal variability in its upper and lower limits. The uncertainty of the fate of the SEP OMZ in a warmer climate as simulated by Earth system models also questions to which extent natural variability in the OMZ can obscure the detection of externally forced trends. Here we analyze long-term simulations from a hierarchy of models of the OMZ off Peru and Chile and show that a significant share of the variability is not linearly related to climate modes (including ENSO), suggesting that it originates from internal dynamics associated to both local non-linear physical and biogeochemical processes. Still the OMZ volume tends to shrink during strong Eastern Pacific El Niño while it expands during La Niña and Central Pacific El Niño events. It is shown in particular that La Niña and strong El Niño events significantly modulate the OMZ volume through the transport of water masses of equatorial origin by the Peru/Chile undercurrent and the propagation of extra-tropical Rossby waves. Implications of our results are discussed in terms of the challenge for developing an Eastern Pacific observing system in the frame of the TPOS2020 program, considering the time of emergence for climate-trend detection above background variability.
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Mesoscale eddies are important, frequent, and persistent features of the circulation in the eastern South Pacific (ESP) Ocean, transporting physical, chemical and biological properties from the productive shelves to the open ocean. Some of these eddies exhibit subsurface hypoxic or suboxic conditions and may serve as important hotspots for nitrogen loss, but little is known about oxygen consumption rates and nitrogen transformation processes associated with these eddies. In the austral fall of 2011, during the Tara Oceans expedition, an intrathermocline, anticyclonic, mesoscale eddy with a suboxic (〈 2 µmol kg−1 of O2), subsurface layer (200–400 m) was detected  ∼  900 km off the Chilean shore (30° S, 81° W). The core of the eddy's suboxic layer had a temperature-salinity signature characteristic of Equatorial Subsurface Water (ESSW) that at this latitude is normally restricted to an area near the coast. Measurements of nitrogen species within the eddy revealed undersaturation (below 44 %) of nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitrite accumulation (〉 0.5 µM), suggesting that active denitrification occurred in this water mass. Using satellite altimetry, we were able to track the eddy back to its region of formation on the coast of central Chile (36.1° S, 74.6° W). Field studies conducted in Chilean shelf waters close to the time of eddy formation provided estimates of initial O2 and N2O concentrations of the ESSW source water in the eddy. By the time of its offshore sighting, concentrations of both O2 and N2O in the subsurface oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the eddy were lower than concentrations in surrounding water and “source water” on the shelf, indicating that these chemical species were consumed as the eddy moved offshore. Estimates of apparent oxygen utilization rates at the OMZ of the eddy ranged from 0.29 to 44 nmol L−1 d−1 and the rate of N2O consumption was 3.92 nmol L−1 d−1. These results show that mesoscale eddies affect open-ocean biogeochemistry in the ESP not only by transporting physical and chemical properties from the coast to the ocean interior but also during advection, local biological consumption of oxygen within an eddy further generates conditions favorable to denitrification and loss of fixed nitrogen from the system.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: In this study, the program named FANS-3D (Finite Analytic Numerical Simulation-3 Dimensional) is presented. FANS-3D was designed to solve problems of incompressible fluid flow and combined modes of heat transfer. It solves problems with conduction and convection modes of heat transfer in laminar flow, with provisions for radiation and turbulent flows. It can solve singular or conjugate modes of heat transfer. It also solves problems in natural convection, using the Boussinesq approximation. FANS-3D was designed to solve heat transfer problems inside one, two and three dimensional geometries that can be represented by orthogonal planes in a Cartesian coordinate system. It can solve internal and external flows using appropriate boundary conditions such as symmetric, periodic and user specified.
    Keywords: FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center, The Fourth Annual Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop; p 187-205
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Coronal holes are the sources of the solar wind and, according to recent YOKOH observations, may undergo rapid changes which are associated with manifestations of explosive solar activity. Rapid changes in a hole's structure will produce rapid changes in the characteristics of the wind emerging from it and, in the particular c se of a sudden increase in wind velocity, this may lead to the formation of an interplanetary shock. We discuss the characteristics of shocks formed in such a way and compare them with interplanetary observations.
    Keywords: Solar Physics
    Type: International Solar Wind 8 Conference; 99; NASA-CR-199940
    Format: text
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-27
    Description: Historically, competitions and prizes such as those executed by the NASA Centennial Challenges (CC) program have created broader avenues through which to spur innovation from unlikely sources. In 2005, Congress amended the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 to authorize NASA to create challenges through which prizes could be awarded to United States citizens or entities that succeeded in meeting the challenge objectives. Over the past 13 years, the CC program has initiated more than 19 challenges in a variety of technology areas, including propulsion, robotics, communications and navigation, human health, science instrumentation, nanotech, materials/structures and aerodynamics. This paper will discuss the status and the accomplishments of the CC program and discuss results of an ideation process designed to identify and formulate topics for a potential Centennial Challenge competition targeting a life support technology gap for future long-term exploration missions. Status of this challenge formulation process with information on how to use crowdsourcing tools will be discussed. An overview of the CC Programs accomplishments, including strategic objectives, past challenges, and current challenge development and execution. This program exemplifies the values that have formed the bedrock of the culture at NASA since the beginning: innovation, imagination, and a passion for exploration.
    Keywords: Man/System Technology and Life Support
    Type: MSFC-E-DAA-TN68902 , International Conference on Environmental Systems; Jul 07, 2019 - Jul 11, 2019; Boston, MA; United States
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Man/System Technology and Life Support
    Type: MSFC-E-DAA-TN70408 , International Conference on Environmental Systems; Jul 07, 2019 - Jul 11, 2019; Boston, MA; United States
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Utilizing an iterative scheme, a self-consistent axisymmetric MHD model for the solar wind has been developed. We use this model to evaluate the properties of the solar wind issuing from the open polar coronal hole regions of the Sun, during solar minimum. We explore the variation of solar wind parameters across the extent of the hole and we investigate how these variations are affected by the geometry of the hole and the strength of the field at the coronal base.
    Keywords: Solar Physics
    Type: ; 65
    Format: text
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