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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: We present calculations of the early stages of the formation of Jupiter via core nucleated accretion and gas capture. The core begins as a seed body of about 350 kilometers in radius and orbits in a swarm of planetesimals whose initial radii range from 15 meters to 100 kilometers. We follow the evolution of the swarm by accounting for growth and fragmentation, viscous and gravitational stirring, and for drag-induced migration and velocity damping. Gas capture by the core substantially enhances the cross-section of the planet for accretion of small planetesimals. The dust opacity within the atmosphere surrounding the planetary core is computed self-consistently, accounting for coagulation and sedimentation of dust particles released in the envelope as passing planetesimals are ablated. The calculation is carried out at an orbital semi-major axis of 5.2 AU and an initial solids' surface density of 10/g/cm^2 at that distance. The results give a core mass of 7 Earth masses and an envelope mass of approximately 0.1 Earth mass after 500,000 years, at which point the envelope growth rate surpasses that of the core. The same calculation without the envelope gives a core mass of only 4 Earth masses.
    Keywords: Astronomy
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN10762 , NCTS# 16972-14; Annual Meeting, Division for Planetary Science; Oct 06, 2013 - Oct 11, 2013; Denver, CO; United States
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Astronomy
    Type: National Radio Science Meeting (USNC-URSI); Jan 05, 2011 - Jan 09, 2011; Boulder, CO; United States
    Format: text
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Observations of T Tauri stars and young brown dwarfs suggest that the accretion rates of their disks scales roughly with the square of the central stellar mass. No dependence of accretion rate on stellar mass is predicted by the simplest version of the Gammie layered disk model, in which nonthermal ionization of upper disk layers allows accretion to occur via the magnetorotational instability. We show that a minor modification of Gaminie's model to include heating by irradiation from the central star yields a modest dependence of accretion on the mass of the central star. A purely viscous disk model could provide a strong dependence of accretion rate on stellar mass if the initial disk radius (before much viscous evolution has occurred) has a strong dependence on stellar mass. However, it is far from clear that at least the most massive pre-main-sequence disks can be totally magnetically activated by X-rays or cosmic rays. We suggest that a combination of effects are responsible for the observed dependence, with the lowest mass stars having the lowest mass disks, which can be thoroughly magnetically active, while the higher mass stars have higher mass disks that have layered accret,ion and relatively inactive or "dead" central zones at some radii. In such dead zones, we suggest that gravitational instabilities may play a role in allowing accretion to proceed. In this connection, we emphasize the uncertainty in disk masses derived from dust emission and argue that T Tauri disk masses have been systematically underestimated by conventional analyses. Furtlier study of accretion rates, especially in the lowest mass stars, would help to clarify the mechanisms of accretion in T Tauri stars.
    Keywords: Astronomy
    Type: The Astrophysical Journal; 648; 1; 484-490
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The architecture of a cross-correlator for a synthesis radio telescope with N greater than 1000 antennas is studied with the objective of minimizing power consumption. It is found that the optimum architecture minimizes memory operations, and this implies preference for a matrix structure over a pipeline structure and avoiding the use of memory banks as accumulation registers when sharing multiply-accumulators among baselines. A straw-man design for N = 2000 and bandwidth of 1 GHz, based on ASICs fabricated in a 90 nm CMOS process, is presented. The cross-correlator proper (excluding per-antenna processing) is estimated to consume less than 35 kW.
    Keywords: Astronomy
    Type: 2011 URSI General Assembly and Scientific Symposium; Aug 13, 2011 - Aug 20, 2011; Istanbul; Turkey
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Astronomy
    Type: LWA Current and Future Users Meeting; May 12, 2011 - May 13, 2011; Albuquerque, NM; United States
    Format: text
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We presented the infrared spectrum of the young binary system St 34 obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The IRS spectrum clearly shows excess dust emission, consistent with the suggestion of White & Hillenbrand that St 34 is accreting from a circumbinary disk. The disk emission of St 34 is low in comparison with the levels observed in typical T Tauri stars; silicate features at 10 and 20 microns are much weaker than typically seen in T Tauri stars; and excess emission is nearly absent at the shortest wavelengths observed. These features of the infrared spectrum suggest substantial grain growth (to eliminate silicate features) and possible settling of dust to the disk midplane (to reduce the continuum excess emission levels), along with a relatively evacuated inner disk, as expected due to gravitational perturbations by the binary system. Although the position of St 34 in the H-R diagram suggests an age of 8f Myr, assuming that it lies at the distance of the Taurus-Auriga molecular clouds, White & Hillenbrand could not detect any Li I absorption, which would indicate a Li depletion age of roughly 25 Myr or more. We suggest that St 34 is closer than the Taurus clouds by about 30-40 pc and has an age roughly consistent with Li depletion models. Such an advanced age would make St 34 the oldest known low-mass pre-main-sequence object with a dusty accretion disk. The persistence of optically thick dust emission well outside the binary orbit may indicate a failure to make giant planets that could effectively remove dust particles.
    Keywords: Astronomy
    Type: The Astrophysical Journal; 628; 2; L147 - L150
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We presented Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of two objects of the Taurus population that show unambiguous signs of clea,ring in their inner disks. In one of the objects, DM Tau, the outer disk is truncated at 3 AU; this object is akin to another recently reported in Taurus, CoKu Tau/4, in that the inner disk region is free of small dust. Unlike CoKu Tau/4, however, this star is still accreting, so optically thin gas should still remain in the inner disk region. The other object, GM Aur, also accreting, has about 0.02 lunar masses of small dust in the inner disk region within about 5 AU, consistent with previous reports. However, the IRS spectrum clearly shows that the optically thick outer disk has an inner truncation at a much larger radius than previously suggested, of order 24 AU. These observations provide strong evidence for the presence of gaps in protoplanetary disks.
    Keywords: Astronomy
    Type: The Astrophysical Journal; 630; 2; L185 - L188
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We presented self-consistent disk models of T Tauri stars that include a parameterized treatment of dust settling and grain growth, building on techniques developed in a series of papers by D'Alessio et al. The models incorporate depleted distributions of dust in upper disk layers along with larger sized particles near the disk midplane, which are expected theoretically and, as we suggested earlier, are necessary to account for millimeter-wave emission, SEDs, scattered light images, and silicate emission features simultaneously. By comparing the models with recent mid- and near-IR observations, we find that the dust-to-gas mass ratio of small grains at the upper layers should be less than 10% of the standard value. The grains that have disappeared from the upper layers increase the dust-to-gas mass ratio of the disk interior; if those grains grow to maximum sizes of the order of millimeters during the settling process, then both the millimeter-wave fluxes and spectral slopes can be consistently explained. Depletion and growth of grains can also enhance the ionization of upper layers, increasing the possibility of the magnetorotational instability for driving disk accretion.
    Keywords: Astronomy
    Type: The Astrophysical Journal; 638; 1; 314-335
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We presented the results of an infrared imaging survey of Tr 37 and NGC 7160 using the IRAC and MIPS instruments on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. Our observations cover the wavelength range from 3.6 to 24 microns, allowing us to detect disk emission over a typical range of radii 0.1 to 20 AU from the central star. In Tr 37, with an age of about 4 Myr, about 48% of the low-mass stars exhibit detectable disk emission in the IRAC bands. Roughly 10% of the stars with disks may be "transition" objects, with essentially photospheric fluxes at wavelengths i 4.5 microns but with excesses at longer wavelengths, indicating an optically thin inner disk. The median optically thick disk emission in Tr 37 is lower than the corresponding median for stars in the younger Taurus region; the decrease in infrared excess is larger at 6-8 microns than at 24 microns, suggesting that grain growth and/or dust settling has proceeded faster at smaller disk radii, as expected on general theoretical grounds. Only about 4% of the low-mass stars in the 10 Myr old cluster NGC 7160 show detectable infrared disk emission. We also find evidence for 24 micron excesses around a few intermediate-mass stars, which may represent so-called "debris disk" systems. Our observations provided new constraints on disk evolution through an important age range.
    Keywords: Astronomy
    Type: The Astrophysical Journal; 638; 897-919
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We report the design of a new application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for use in radio telescope correlators. It supports the construction of correlators for an arbitrarily large number of signals. The ASIC uses an intrinsically low-power architecture along with design techniques and a process that together result in unprecedentedly low power consumption. The design is flexible in that it can support telescopes with almost any number of antennas N. It is intended for use in an "FX" correlator, where a uniform filter bank breaks each signal into separate frequency channels prior to correlation.
    Keywords: Astronomy
    Type: United States National Committee of URSI National Radio Science Meeting (USNC-URSI NRSM); Jan 06, 2016 - Jan 09, 2016; Boulder, CO; United States
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