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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: This slide presentation reviews the current status of the launch vehicles associated with the Constellation Program. These are the Ares I and the Ares V. An overview of the Ares launch vehicles is included. The presentation stresses that the major criteria for the Ares I launcher is the safety of the crew, and the presentation reviews the various features that are designed to assure that aim. The Ares I vehicle is being built on a foundation of proven technologies, and the Ares V will give NASA unprecedented performance and payload volume that can enable a range of future missions. The CDs contain videos of scenes from various activities surrounding the design, construction and testing of the vehicles.
    Keywords: Launch Vehicles and Launch Operations
    Type: Human Space Flight Review; 29 Jul. 2009; Huntsville, AL; United States
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: Determination of the shape of very thin x-ray mirrors employed in spaced-based telescopes continues to be challenging. The mirrors shapes are not readily deduced to the required accuracy because the mount induced distortions are often larger than the uncertainty tolerable for the mission metrology. In addition to static deformations, dynamic and thermal considerations are exacerbated for this class of mirrors. We report on the performance of one temporary mounting scheme for the thin glass mirrors for the Constellation-X mission and prospects for deducing their undistorted shapes.
    Keywords: Optics
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: Laser beams emitted from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS), as well as other space-borne laser instruments, can only penetrate clouds to a limit of a few optical depths. As a result, only optical depths of thinner clouds (〈 about 3 for GLAS) are retrieved from the reflected lidar signal. This paper presents a comprehensive study of possible retrievals of optical depth of thick clouds using solar background light and treating GLAS as a solar radiometer. To do so we first calibrate the reflected solar radiation received by the photon-counting detectors of GLAS' 532 nm channel, which is the primary channel for atmospheric products. The solar background radiation is regarded as a noise to be subtracted in the retrieval process of the lidar products. However, once calibrated, it becomes a signal that can be used in studying the properties of optically thick clouds. In this paper, three calibration methods are presented: (I) calibration with coincident airborne and GLAS observations; (2) calibration with coincident Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and GLAS observations of deep convective clouds; (3) calibration from the first principles using optical depth of thin water clouds over ocean retrieved by GLAS active remote sensing. Results from the three methods agree well with each other. Cloud optical depth (COD) is retrieved from the calibrated solar background signal using a one-channel retrieval. Comparison with COD retrieved from GOES during GLAS overpasses shows that the average difference between the two retrievals is 24%. As an example, the COD values retrieved from GLAS solar background are illustrated for a marine stratocumulus cloud field that is too thick to be penetrated by the GLAS laser. Based on this study, optical depths for thick clouds will be provided as a supplementary product to the existing operational GLAS cloud products in future GLAS data releases.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: Medical requirements for the future Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM), advanced Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suits and Lunar habitat are currently being developed. Crews returning to the lunar surface will construct the lunar habitat and conduct scientific research. Inherent in aggressive surface activities is the potential risk of injury to crewmembers. Physiological responses and the operational environment for short forays during the Apollo lunar missions were studied and documented. Little is known about the operational environment in which crews will live and work and the hardware will be used for long-duration lunar surface operations. Additional information is needed regarding productivity and the events that affect crew function such as a compressed timeline. The Space Medicine Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) requested a study in December 2005 to identify Apollo mission issues relevant to medical operations that had impact to crew health and/or performance. The operationally oriented goals of this project were to develop or modify medical requirements for new exploration vehicles and habitats, create a centralized database for future access, and share relevant Apollo information with the multiple entities at NASA and abroad participating in the exploration effort.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-06-12
    Description: The successful operation of long-life, highly loaded mechanisms used for planetary exploration or autonomous structures assembly will depend upon the ability to effectively lubricate rolling-element bearings. As new tools are developed (i.e., drill, abraders, robotic manipulators, etc.) that interact with their environment in a more direct manner, lubricants will be pushed past the bounds that current scientific literature has published. This paper details results from bearing lubrication lifetime testing performed in support of Honeybee Robotics development of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Surface Removal Tool (SRT). This testing was done due to the lack of available data in research literature that is applicable to the lubrication regime the SRT bearings are being designed for. Based on the test results, the chosen bearing arrangement can be used for the SRT Grind Shaft bearings with the use of a Braycote Micronic 601EF grease-plate with a 10 vol% grease slurry fill (50/50 wt% Braycote Micronic 601EF and Brayco 815Z). This arrangement showed no signs of detrimental degradation over the course of the 3x life test. The purely grease-plated bearing ran at a consistently higher torque and showed signs of failure beginning at approximately 2.2 x 10(exp 7) revs (approximately 6.3 x 10(exp 7) stress-cycles) with a torque over-limit failure at approximately 4.5 x 10(exp 7) revs (approximately 1.3 x 10(exp 8) stress-cycles). Barring cold-start torque margin limitations, it is recommended that any long-life bearing application include some vol% grease-pack in addition to a standard grease-plate to reduce parasitic torque and increase bearing life. While these results are specific to a particular environment and loading condition, they demonstrate the extended capabilities of a commonly used flight lubricant outside of the range that is published in current research literature.
    Keywords: Nonmetallic Materials
    Type: 39th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium; 69-82; NASA/CP-2008-215252
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-06-12
    Description: We use Hinode X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) filtergraph (FG) Stokes-V magnetogram observations, to study the early onset of a solar eruption that includes an erupting filament that we observe in TRACE EUV images. The filament undergoes a slow rise for at least 20 min prior to its fast eruption and strong soft X-ray flaring; such slow rises have been previously reported, and the new Hinode data elucidate the physical processes occurring during this period. XRT images show that during the slow-rise phase, a soft X-ray (SXR) sigmoid forms from apparent reconnection low in the sheared core field traced by the filament, and there is a low-level intensity peak in both EUV and SXRs during the slow rise. MDI and SOT FG/V magnetograms show that the pre-eruption filament is along a neutral line between opposing-polarity enhanced network cells, and the SOT magnetograms show that these opposing fields are flowing together and canceling for at least six hours prior to eruption. From the MDI data we measure the canceling network fields to be approx. 40 G, and we estimate that approx. 10(exp 19) Mx of flux canceled during the five hours prior to eruption; this is only approx. 5% of the total flux spanned by the eruption and flare, but apparently its tether-cutting cancellation was enough to destabilize the sigmoid field holding the filament and resulted in that field's eruption.
    Keywords: Astronomy
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-06-12
    Description: We used Hinode X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) filtergraph (FG) Stokes-V magnetogram observations, to study the early onset of a solar eruption that includes an erupting filament that we observe in TRACE EUV images. The filament undergoes a slow rise for at least 20min prior to its fast eruption and strong soft X-ray (SXR) flaring; such slow rises have been previously reported, and the new Hinode data elucidate the physical processes occurring during this period. XRT images show that during the slow-rise phase, an SXR sigmoid forms from apparent reconnection low in the sheared core field traced by the filament, and there is a low-level intensity peak in both EUV and SXRs during the slow rise. MDI and SOT FG Stokes-V magnetograms show that the pre-emption filament is along a neutral line between opposing-polarity enhanced network cells, and the SOT magnetograms show that these opposing fields are flowing together and canceling for at least six hours prior to eruption. From the MDI data we measured the canceling network fields to be approx. 40 G, and we estimated that approx. 10(exp 19)Mx of flux canceled during the five hours prior to eruption; this is only approx.5% of the total flux spanned by the eruption and flare, but apparently its tether-cutting cancellation was enough to destabilize the sigmoid field holding the filament and resulted in that field's eruption.
    Keywords: Astronomy
    Type: Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan; Volume 59; S823-S829
    Format: text
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-06-12
    Description: The Hinode satellite (formerly Solar-B) of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS/JAXA) was successfully launched in September 2006. As the successor to the Yohkoh mission, it aims to understand how magnetic energy is transferred from the photosphere to the upper atmospheres and resulting in explosive energy releases. Hinode is an observatory style mission, with all the instruments being designed and built to work together to address the science aims. There are three instruments onboard: the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS), and the X-ray Telescope (XRT). This paper overviews the mission, including the satellite, the scientific payload and operations. It will conclude with discussions on how the international science community can participate in the analysis of the mission data.
    Keywords: Astronomy
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-06-12
    Description: For all past and current human space missions, the final scheduling of tasks to be done in space has been devoid of crew control, flexibility, and insight. Ground controllers, with minimal input from the crew, schedule the tasks and uplink the timeline to the crew or uplink the command sequences to the hardware. Prior to the International Space Station (ISS), the crew could make requests about tomorrow s timeline, they could omit a task, or they could request that something in the timeline be delayed. This lack of control over one's own schedule has had negative consequences. There is anecdotal consensus among astronauts that control over their own schedules will mitigate the stresses of long duration missions. On ISS, a modicum of crew control is provided by the job jar. Ground controllers prepare a task list (a.k.a. "job jar") of non-conflicting tasks from which jobs can be chosen by the in space crew. Because there is little free time and few interesting non-conflicting activities, the task-list approach provides little relief from the tedium of being micro-managed by the timeline. Scheduling for space missions is a complex and laborious undertaking which usually requires a large cadre of trained specialists and suites of complex software tools. It is a giant leap from today s ground prepared timeline (with a job jar) to full crew control of the timeline. However, technological advances, currently in-work or proposed, make it reasonable to consider scheduling a collaborative effort by the ground-based teams and the in-space crew. Collaboration would allow the crew to make minor adjustments, add tasks according to their preferences, understand the reasons for the placement of tasks on the timeline, and provide them a sense of control. In foreseeable but extraordinary situations, such as a quick response to anomalies and extended or unexpected loss of signal, the crew should have the autonomous ability to make appropriate modifications to the timeline, extend the timeline, or even start over with a new timeline. The Vision for Space Exploration (VSE), currently being pursued by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), will send humans to Mars in a few decades. Stresses on the human mind will be exacerbated by the longer durations and greater distances, and it will be imperative to implement stress-reducing innovations such as giving the crew control of their daily activities.
    Keywords: Cybernetics, Artificial Intelligence and Robotics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: Ground-based analogs of spaceflight are an important means of studying physiological and nutritional changes associated with space travel, particularly since exploration missions are anticipated, and flight research opportunities are limited. A clinical nutritional assessment of the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operation V (NEEMO) crew (4 M, 2 F) was conducted before, during, and after the 14-d saturation dive. Blood and urine samples were collected before (D-12 and D-1), during (MD 7 and MD 12), and after (R + 0 and R + 7) the dive. The foods were typical of the spaceflight food system. A number of physiological changes were reported both during the dive and post dive that are also commonly observed during spaceflight. Serum hemoglobin and hematocrit were decreased (P less than 0.05) post dive. Serum ferritin and ceruloplasmin significantly increased during the dive, while transferring receptors tended to go down during the dive and were significantly decreased by the last day (R + 0). Along with significant hematological changes, there was also evidence for increased oxidative damage and stress during the dive. 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was elevated (P less than 0.05) during the dive, while glutathione peroxidase and superoxide disrnutase activities were decreased (P less than 0.05) during the dive. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration also tended to increase during the dive, suggesting the presence of a stress-induced inflammatory response, Decreased leptin during the dive (P less than 0.05) may also be related to the increased stress. Similar to what is observed during spaceflight, subjects had decreased energy intake and weight loss during the dive. Together, these similarities to spaceflight provide a model to further define the physiological effects of spaceflight and investigate potential countermeasures.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
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