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  • Articles  (40)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-03-29
    Description: Shifts in species' distribution and abundance in response to climate change have been well documented, but the underpinning processes are still poorly understood. We present the results of a systematic literature review and meta-analysis investigating the frequency and importance of different mechanisms by which climate has impacted natural populations. Most studies were from temperate latitudes of North America and Europe; almost half investigated bird populations. We found significantly greater support for indirect, biotic mechanisms than direct, abiotic mechanisms as mediators of the impact of climate on populations. In addition, biotic effects tended to have greater support than abiotic factors in studies of species from higher trophic levels. For primary consumers, the impact of climate was equally mediated by biotic and abiotic mechanisms, whereas for higher level consumers the mechanisms were most frequently biotic, such as predation or food availability. Biotic mechanisms were more frequently supported in studies that reported a directional trend in climate than in studies with no such climatic change, although sample sizes for this comparison were small. We call for more mechanistic studies of climate change impacts on populations, particularly in tropical systems.
    Print ISSN: 1354-1013
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2486
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Published by Wiley
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-06-12
    Description: Inhibitors against the p110delta isoform of phosphoinositide-3-OH kinase (PI(3)K) have shown remarkable therapeutic efficacy in some human leukaemias. As p110delta is primarily expressed in leukocytes, drugs against p110delta have not been considered for the treatment of solid tumours. Here we report that p110delta inactivation in mice protects against a broad range of cancers, including non-haematological solid tumours. We demonstrate that p110delta inactivation in regulatory T cells unleashes CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells and induces tumour regression. Thus, p110delta inhibitors can break tumour-induced immune tolerance and should be considered for wider use in oncology.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4501086/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4501086/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ali, Khaled -- Soond, Dalya R -- Pineiro, Roberto -- Hagemann, Thorsten -- Pearce, Wayne -- Lim, Ee Lyn -- Bouabe, Hicham -- Scudamore, Cheryl L -- Hancox, Timothy -- Maecker, Heather -- Friedman, Lori -- Turner, Martin -- Okkenhaug, Klaus -- Vanhaesebroeck, Bart -- 095691/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 095691/Z/11/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 12888/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- 14355/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- A10200/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- A12888/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- A15965/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- BB/E009867/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- C18270/A12888/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- C23338/A10200/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- C23338/A15965/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jun 19;510(7505):407-11. doi: 10.1038/nature13444. Epub 2014 Jun 11.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] UCL Cancer Institute, Paul O'Gorman Building, University College London, 72 Huntley Street London WC1E 6DD, UK [2]. ; 1] Laboratory of Lymphocyte Signalling and Development, The Babraham Institute, Babraham Research Campus, Cambridge CB22 3AT, UK [2] [3]. ; Centre for Cancer and Inflammation, Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, UK. ; UCL Cancer Institute, Paul O'Gorman Building, University College London, 72 Huntley Street London WC1E 6DD, UK. ; Laboratory of Lymphocyte Signalling and Development, The Babraham Institute, Babraham Research Campus, Cambridge CB22 3AT, UK. ; Mary Lyon Centre, MRC Harwell, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Harwell OX11 0RD, UK. ; Piramed Pharma, 957 Buckingham Avenue, Slough, Berkshire SL1 4NL, UK. ; Cancer Signaling and Translational Oncology, Genentech Inc, 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, California 94080-4990, USA. ; 1] Laboratory of Lymphocyte Signalling and Development, The Babraham Institute, Babraham Research Campus, Cambridge CB22 3AT, UK [2].〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24919154" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology ; Enzyme Activation/drug effects ; Enzyme Inhibitors/*pharmacology ; Immune Tolerance/*drug effects/immunology ; Mice ; Neoplasms/*enzymology/*immunology ; Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/*metabolism ; T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/*drug effects/enzymology/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-10-27
    Description: Many factors may affect daily nest survival. We present a novel multi-state, multi-stage model to estimate daily survival for each nest stage, daily hatching probability and probability that a failed nest died during a specific stage when stage of failure is unknown. The model does not require that hatching date be known. We used data from a large citizen science dataset to demonstrate the application of this approach, exploring the impact of laying dates, weather conditions, conserved soil moisture, soil carbon, habitat type and urbanisation on failure rates of common blackbird ( Turdus merula ) nests. Models selected and estimates of nest success were similar to those of the simpler logistic exposure method, but accounted for additional uncertainty. Simulations suggest the multi-state approach performs better when incubation mortality is affected by nest age, but not when incubation mortality is assumed constant. Both approaches worked best when date of incubation initiation was known for all nests first visited during the incubation stage. Daily blackbird survival probabilities were higher in human rural habitat than in urban or countryside habitats supporting the hypothesis that these intermediate habitats offer a better balance between low food availability in urban areas and high predation rates in the wider countryside. Nest success was influenced more by recent precipitation in urban habitats, but by a longer-term measure of water availability, soil moisture, in non-human dominated habitats, indicating that climatic change is likely to alter relationships between habitat and breeding success (and their temporal scale) by influencing the trade-off between food availability and predation rates. The multi-state, multi-stage model developed here may be helpful to other researchers modelling ecological processes in which transition probabilities between multiple stages are of interest. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0012-9658
    Electronic ISSN: 1939-9170
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Wiley on behalf of The Ecological Society of America (ESA).
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-04-19
    Description: Chemically zoned minerals are useful records of temporal variations in ambient conditions and bulk chemical composition of the fluid from which the minerals precipitate. In fluid-buffered systems, zoning of mineral compositions is expected to reflect directly the evolution of fluid composition. Here we show that during rapid fluid-rock reactions, ultra-local equilibrium can form complex mineral zoning patterns, even when the overall system is highly fluid buffered. We reacted cleaved calcite single crystals with aqueous arsenate-phosphate solutions with molar ratios of As/(As + P) between 0.01 and 0.15 at 250 °C and water-saturated pressure. We find that complex zoning patterns and solid solution between hydroxylapatite- and arsenate-bearing hydroxylapatite that pseudomorphically replaced calcite formed within hours, and these zoning patterns were destroyed within days during secondary reactions. We propose a two-stage reaction process in the formation of the final reaction product. (1) On an hour time scale, calcite is dissolved and replaced by compositionally heterogeneous apatite. The thin reaction-interface fluid layer becomes extremely enriched in arsenic at an ultra-local scale as the reaction removes phosphate faster than the interface fluid can re-equilibrate with the bulk fluid. (2) The heterogeneous apatite is replaced by homogeneous apatite that reflects the bulk fluid composition over a longer (days) time scale through interface-coupled dissolution-precipitation. This paper highlights the complexity that can arise from ultra-local fluid composition variations due to rapid fluid-rock interaction in a short-lived fluid flow event, for example during a seismic cycle. Subsequent interpretation of complex zoning patterns as reflecting the evolution of bulk fluid would be erroneous.
    Print ISSN: 0091-7613
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-2682
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-08-02
    Description: Article Climatic change is predicted to impact moisture-dependent ecosystems. Here Carroll et al . show that a combination of physical, biophysical and ecosystem processes determine the abundance and distribution of three bird species that feed on craneflies in blanket bogs. Nature Communications doi: 10.1038/ncomms8851 Authors: Matthew J. Carroll, Andreas Heinemeyer, James W. Pearce-Higgins, Peter Dennis, Chris West, Joseph Holden, Zoe E. Wallage, Chris D. Thomas
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-1723
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-06-30
    Description: Climate change vulnerability assessments are commonly used to identify species at risk from global climate change, but the wide range of methodologies available makes it difficult for end users, such as conservation practitioners or policymakers, to decide which method to use as a basis for decision-making. In this study, we evaluate whether different assessments consistently assign species to the same risk categories and whether any of the existing methodologies perform well at identifying climate-threatened species. We compare the outputs of 12 climate change vulnerability assessment methodologies, using both real and simulated species, and validate the methods using historic data for British birds and butterflies (i.e. using historical data to assign risks and more recent data for validation). Our results show that the different vulnerability assessment methods are not consistent with one another; different risk categories are assigned for both the real and simulated sets of species. Validation of the different vulnerability assessments suggests that methods incorporating historic trend data into the assessment perform best at predicting distribution trends in subsequent time periods. This study demonstrates that climate change vulnerability assessments should not be used interchangeably due to the poor overall agreement between methods when considering the same species. The results of our validation provide more support for the use of trend-based rather than purely trait-based approaches, although further validation will be required as data become available. Climate change vulnerability assessments are commonly used to identify species at risk from global climate change, but the wide range of methodologies available makes it difficult for end users, such as conservation practitioners or policymakers, to decide which method to use as a basis for decision-making. Here, we compare the outputs of 12 such climate change vulnerability assessment methodologies, using both real and simulated species, and we validate the methods using historic data for British birds and butterflies (i.e. using historical data to assign risks and more recent data for validation). Our results highlight considerable inconsistencies in species risk assignment across all the approaches considered and suggest the majority of the frameworks are poor predictors of risk under climate. Methods that incorporated historic trend data were the only ones to have any validity at predicting distributional trends in subsequent time periods.
    Print ISSN: 1354-1013
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2486
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Published by Wiley
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-09-25
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pearce-Higgins, James W -- England -- Nature. 2015 Sep 24;525(7570):455. doi: 10.1038/525455b.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉British Trust for Ornithology, Thetford, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26399822" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Birds ; *Conflict of Interest ; Cost-Benefit Analysis ; Data Collection ; Great Britain ; *Hobbies ; Motivation ; *Research Design ; Science/*manpower ; *Volunteers/psychology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pearce, Warren -- Hartley, Sarah -- Nerlich, Brigitte -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 3;531(7592):35. doi: 10.1038/531035d.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉University of Nottingham, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26935688" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Humans ; *Information Dissemination ; Research/*standards
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-04-07
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ali, Khaled -- Soond, Dalya R -- Pineiro, Roberto -- Hagemann, Thorsten -- Pearce, Wayne -- Lim, Ee Lyn -- Bouabe, Hicham -- Scudamore, Cheryl L -- Hancox, Timothy -- Maecker, Heather -- Friedman, Lori -- Turner, Martin -- Okkenhaug, Klaus -- Vanhaesebroeck, Bart -- Nature. 2016 Apr 6. doi: 10.1038/nature17641.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27049952" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-11-27
    Description: Will networks of protected areas remain effective as the climate changes? Research into the response of bird populations to climate variance and change attempts to shed light on this issue. Results suggest that despite projected declines in many of the species investigated, most sites that are designated as EU Special Protection Areas in the UK can be expected to retain their conservation value and legal status. Nature Climate Change 3 1055 doi: 10.1038/nclimate2035
    Print ISSN: 1758-678X
    Electronic ISSN: 1758-6798
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Springer Nature
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