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  • Articles  (38)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018
    Description: The Holocene, Ahead of Print. 〈br/〉
    Print ISSN: 0959-6836
    Electronic ISSN: 1477-0911
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Sage
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018
    Description: The Holocene, Volume 29, Issue 1, Page 85-96, January 2019. 〈br/〉
    Print ISSN: 0959-6836
    Electronic ISSN: 1477-0911
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Sage
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-10-17
    Print ISSN: 0959-6836
    Electronic ISSN: 1477-0911
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by SAGE Publications
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  • 4
  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-03-25
    Description: ABSTRACT The region situated between the mountain area and the lowlands in NE Romania (East-Central Europe) is experiencing increased competition for water resources triggered by a growing population, intensification of agriculture, and industrial development. To better understand hydrological cycling processes in the region, a study was conducted using stable isotopes of water and atmospheric trajectory data to characterize regional precipitation and vapour sources derived from the Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean and Black Seas, as well as recycled continental moisture, and to assess and partition these contributions to recharge of surface and groundwater. Atmospheric moisture in the lowlands is found to be predominantly delivered along easterly trajectories, while mountainous areas appear to be dominated by North Atlantic Ocean sources, with moisture transported along mid-latitude, westerly storm tracks. Large-scale circulation patterns affect moisture delivery, the North Atlantic Oscillation being particularly influential in winter and the East Atlantic pattern in summer. Winter precipitation is the main contributor to river discharge and aquifer recharge. As winter precipitation amounts are projected to decrease over the next decades, and water abstraction is expected to steadily increase, a general reduction in water availability is projected for the region.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-05-08
    Description: Among abundant reconstructions of Holocene climate in Europe, only a handful has addressed winter conditions, and most of these are restricted in length and/or resolution. Here we present a record of late autumn through early winter air temperature and moisture source changes in East-Central Europe for the Holocene, based on stable isotopic analysis of an ice core recovered from a cave in the Romanian Carpathian Mountains. During the past 10,000 years, reconstructed temperature changes followed insolation, with a minimum in the early Holocene, followed by gradual and continuous increase towards the mid-to-late-Holocene peak (between 4-2 kcal BP), and finally by a decrease after 0.8 kcal BP towards a minimum during the Little Ice Age (AD 1300–1850). Reconstructed early Holocene atmospheric circulation patterns were similar to those characteristics of the negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), while in the late Holocene they resembled those prevailing in the positive NAO phase. The transition between the two regimes occurred abruptly at around 4.7 kcal BP. Remarkably, the widespread cooling at 8.2 kcal BP is not seen very well as a temperature change, but as a shift in moisture source, suggesting weaker westerlies and increased Mediterranean cyclones penetrating northward at this time.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-04-29
    Description: Causal explanations for the 4.2 ka BP event are based on the amalgamation of seasonal and annual records of climate variability that was manifest across global regions dominated by different climatic regimes. However, instrumental and paleoclimate data indicate that seasonal climate variability is not always sequential in some regions. The present study investigates the spatial manifestation of the 4.2 ka BP event during the boreal winter season in Eurasia, where climate variability is a function of the spatiotemporal dynamics of the westerly winds. We present a multi-proxy reconstruction of winter climate conditions in Europe, west Asia, and northern Africa between 4.3 and 3.8 ka. Our results show that, while winter temperatures were cold throughout the region, precipitation amounts had a heterogeneous distribution, with regionally significant low values in W Asia, SE Europe, and N Europe and local high values in the N Balkan Peninsula, the Carpathian Mountains, and E and NE Europe. Further, strong northerly winds were dominating in the Middle East and E and NE Europe. Analyzing the relationships between these climatic conditions, we hypothesize that in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere, the 4.2 ka BP event was caused by the strengthening and expansion of the Siberian High, which effectively blocked the moisture-carrying westerlies from reaching W Asia and enhanced outbreaks of cold and dry winds in that region. The behavior of the winter and summer monsoons suggests that when parts of Asia and Europe were experiencing winter droughts, SE Asia was experiencing similar summer droughts, resulting from failed and/or reduced monsoons. Thus, while in the extratropical regions of Eurasia the 4.2 ka BP event was a century-scale winter phenomenon, in the monsoon-dominated regions it may have been a feature of summer climate conditions.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-11-19
    Description: We present the first annual oxygen isotope record (1900–2016) from the latewood (LW) cellulose of oak trees (Quercus robur) from NW Romania. As expected, the results correlate negatively with summer relative humidity, sunshine duration and precipitation and positively with summer maximum temperature. Spatial correlation analysis reveals a clear signal reflecting drought conditions at a European scale. Interannual variability is influenced by large-scale atmospheric circulation and by surface temperatures in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. There is considerable potential to produce long and well-replicated oak tree ring stable isotope chronologies in Romania which would allow reconstructions of both regional drought and large-scale circulation variability over southern and central Europe.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-03-07
    Description: A bstract : The Carpathian Mountains across Slovakia and Romania are home of several ice caves located at elevations between 700 and 1,200 m above sea level (asl). Although the mean surface annual temperature is above the freezing point, perennial ice deposits are common in caves and shafts with certain morphologies (large entrances followed by steep vertical or downward-sloping passages), into which the dense cold winter air sinks and remains trapped all year round. A particular type of cave pearls (cryogenic cave pearls, CCPs) occur in spatially restricted accumulations or extensive pearl fields (layers locally up to 0.5 m in thickness) within the scree covering the cave floor in the periglacial zone of these caves. The temperature in the periglacial zone oscillates around the freezing point, promoting seasonal ice formation. A similar type of pearl is observed in the entrance section of other caves that experience temporary freezing conditions during the cold season. When compared to pearls of non-iced caves, those from ice caves always occur at sites where liquid water cannot accumulate. CCP formation in nests with drips or in cave pools surrounded by rimstone dams is therefore excluded. Freezing–thawing processes are responsible for moving the pearls, preventing their cementation to the floor or between them. Results of U-series and radiocarbon dating indicate that the pearls are Holocene in age, with their growth continuing into the present. Pearls show high porosity, ranging from 7.6 to 22.6%. In the center they frequently contain radial aggregates of larger carbonate crystals, and their concentric layering is less obvious compared to normal cave pearls. In addition, polygonal pearls and pearl aggregates are common. Stable carbon and oxygen isotope study indicates the formation of an initial crystal aggregate by cryogenic precipitation during freezing of drip water. After that, pearls grow by addition of new carbonate layers, either at water freezing conditions or at temperature above 0°C. Overall, the pearl isotope data plot along a mixing line in the 13 C vs. 18 O diagram, connecting the field of normal speleothems of non-iced caves of the area, with the field of fine-grained cryogenic carbonate powder, formed in the glaciated parts of the ice caves. Seasonal water freezing and frost action in the cave periglacial zone is a necessary condition for the formation of these pearls.
    Print ISSN: 1527-1404
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈div data-abstract-type="normal"〉〈p〉This survey presents the first high-throughput characterisation of fungal distribution based on ITS2 Illumina sequencing of uncultured microbiome from a 1500 years old perennial ice deposit in Scărișoara Ice Cave, Romania. Of the total of 1 751 957 ITS2 sequences, 64% corresponded to 182 fungal operational taxonomic units, showing a low diversity, particularly in older ice strata, and a distinct temporal distribution pattern. Ascomycota was the major phylum in all ice samples, dominating the 400 and 1500 years old ice strata deposited during the cold Little Ice Age (LIA) and Dark Ages Cold Period, while Basidiomycota was mostly present in 900-years old ice formed during the Medieval Warm Period (MWP). Chytridiomycota and Mucoromycota phyla were present in recently formed and 400-years old ice, respectively. Among the 80 identified genera, 〈span〉Cryptococcus victoriae〈/span〉, commonly found in glacial habitats, was identified in all strata. A positive correlation between fungal distribution and ice conductivity, Ca, Na and Sr concentrations was observed across the ice block, with pH values trailing climate variations during LIA and MWP, respectively. Our record highlighted the presence of a complex climate and environmental-driven fungal community in perennial ice strata accumulated during the last 1500 years in Scărișoara Ice Cave.〈/p〉〈/div〉
    Print ISSN: 0260-3055
    Electronic ISSN: 1727-5644
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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