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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: The lack of correlation between photosynthesis and plant growth under sink-limited conditions is a long-standing puzzle in plant ecophysiology that currently severely compromises our models of vegetation responses to global change. To address this puzzle, we applied data assimilation to an experiment in which the sink strength of Eucalyptus tereticornis seedlings was manipulated by restricting root volume. Our goals were to infer which processes were affected by sink limitation and to attribute the overall reduction in growth observed in the experiment to the effects on various carbon (C) component processes. Our analysis was able to infer that, in addition to a reduction in photosynthetic rates, sink limitation reduced the rate of utilization of nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC), enhanced respiratory losses, modified C allocation and increased foliage turnover. Each of these effects was found to have a significant impact on final plant biomass accumulation. We also found that inclusion of an NSC storage pool was necessary to capture seedling growth over time, particularly for sink-limited seedlings. Our approach of applying data assimilation to infer C balance processes in a manipulative experiment enabled us to extract new information on the timing, magnitude and direction of the internal C fluxes from an existing dataset. We suggest that this approach could, if used more widely, be an invaluable tool to develop appropriate representations of sink-limited growth in terrestrial biosphere models.
    Print ISSN: 1726-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1726-4189
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-06-06
    Description: Cave drip water response to surface meteorological conditions is complex due to the heterogeneity of water movement in the karst unsaturated zone. Previous studies have focused on the monitoring of fractured rock limestones that have little or no primary porosity. In this study, we aim to further understand infiltration water hydrology in the Tamala Limestone of SW Australia, which is Quaternary aeolianite with primary porosity. We build on our previous studies of the Golgotha Cave system and utilize the existing spatial survey of 29 automated cave drip loggers and a LiDAR-based flow classification scheme, conducted in the two main chambers of this cave. We find that a daily sampling frequency at our cave site optimizes the capture of drip variability with least possible sampling artifacts. Most of the drip sites show persistent autocorrelation for at least a month. Drip discharge histograms are highly variable, showing sometimes multimodal distributions. Histogram skewness is shown to relate to the wetter than average 2013 hydrological year and modality is affected by seasonality. Finally, a combination of Multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) and clustering by k-means is used to classify similar drip types based on time series analysis. This clustering reveals four unique drip regimes which agree with the flow type classification of Mahmud et al. (2016) for this site. It highlights a spatial homogeneity in drip types in one cave chamber, and spatial heterogeneity in the other, which is in concordance with our understanding of cave chamber morphology and lithology. Our hydrological classification scheme with respect to mean discharge and the flow variation, can distinguish between groundwater flow types in limestones with primary porosity, and the technique could be used to characterize different karst formations when high-frequency automated drip logger data are available. We observe little difference in the Coefficient of variation (COV) between flow classification types, probably reflecting the dominance of primary porosity at this cave site, and the seasonal variations in discharge related to storage replenishment in winter followed by recession in the periods of soil moisture deficit. Moreover, we do not find any relationship between drip variability and discharge within similar flow type.
    Print ISSN: 1812-2108
    Electronic ISSN: 1812-2116
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-02-06
    Description: Cave drip water response to surface meteorological conditions is complex due to the heterogeneity of water movement in the karst unsaturated zone. Previous studies have focused on the monitoring of fractured rock limestones that have little or no primary porosity. In this study, we aim to further understand infiltration water hydrology in the Tamala Limestone of SW Australia, which is Quaternary aeolianite with primary porosity. We build on our previous studies of the Golgotha Cave system and utilize the existing spatial survey of 29 automated cave drip loggers and a lidar-based flow classification scheme, conducted in the two main chambers of this cave. We find that a daily sampling frequency at our cave site optimizes the capture of drip variability with the least possible sampling artifacts. With the optimum sampling frequency, most of the drip sites show persistent autocorrelation for at least a month, typically much longer, indicating ample storage of water feeding all stalactites investigated. Drip discharge histograms are highly variable, showing sometimes multimodal distributions. Histogram skewness is shown to relate to the wetter-than-average 2013 hydrological year and modality is affected by seasonality. The hydrological classification scheme with respect to mean discharge and the flow variation can distinguish between groundwater flow types in limestones with primary porosity, and the technique could be used to characterize different karst flow paths when high-frequency automated drip logger data are available. We observe little difference in the coefficient of variation (COV) between flow classification types, probably reflecting the ample storage due to the dominance of primary porosity at this cave site. Moreover, we do not find any relationship between drip variability and discharge within similar flow type. Finally, a combination of multidimensional scaling (MDS) and clustering by k means is used to classify similar drip types based on time series analysis. This clustering reveals four unique drip regimes which agree with previous flow type classification for this site. It highlights a spatial homogeneity in drip types in one cave chamber, and spatial heterogeneity in the other, which is in agreement with our understanding of cave chamber morphology and lithology.
    Print ISSN: 1027-5606
    Electronic ISSN: 1607-7938
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-02-26
    Description: The lack of correlation between photosynthesis and plant growth under sink-limited conditions is a long-standing puzzle in plant ecophysiology that currently severely compromises our models of vegetation responses to global change. To address this puzzle, we applied data assimilation of a simple carbon (C) balance model to an experiment where sink strength was manipulated by restricting root volume. Our goals were to infer which processes were affected by growth under sink limitation, and to attribute the overall reduction in growth observed in the experiment, to the effects on component processes. Our analysis was able to infer that, in addition to a reduction in photosynthetic rates, sink limitation reduced the rate of utilization of non-structural carbohydrate (NSC), enhanced respiratory losses, modified C allocation and increased foliage turnover. Each of these effects was found to have a significant impact on final plant biomass accumulation. We also found that inclusion of a NSC storage pool was necessary to capture seedling growth over time, particularly for sink limited seedlings. Our approach of applying data assimilation to infer C balance processes in a manipulative experiment enabled us to extract considerable new information from an existing dataset. We suggest this approach could, if used more widely, be an invaluable tool to develop appropriate representations of sink-limited growth in terrestrial biosphere models.
    Print ISSN: 1810-6277
    Electronic ISSN: 1810-6285
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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