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  • Articles  (266)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-6881
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Values for the activation energy and pre-exponential factor from electrical conductivity measurements on polycrystalline isocytosine were found to be reproducible when evaporated electrodes were used. With pressure contacts a linear relationship exists between activation energy and the logarithm of the pre-exponential factor. This is shown to be an apparent and not a true compensation effect.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0991
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A procedure for preparation ofAnaplasma marginale free of erythrocytic antigens is deseribed. The protocol employed heat-stable hemolysin produced byPseudomonas aeruginosa to lyse the erythrocytes and releaseA. marginale. Most of the contaminatng erythrocytic components were solubilized by enzymatic digestion. Final purification was accomplished by differential centrifugation. Electron microscopy and serological criteria established the absence of contaminating host cell antigens.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract This paper describes the application of linear elastic fracture mechanics analysis to the fracture of acrylic polymers in water. Three denture base acrylics were studied in addition to Perspex. The effects of strain rate and temperature were investigated using double torsion specimens and three-point bend specimens. It was found for most materials that the fracture toughness was dramatically increased on testing in water compared with testing in air. Crack propagation at fast strain rates was unstable in water and the fracture toughness and flaw size were strain-rate dependent, increasing with decreasing test rate, whilst the un-notched fracture strength decreased with decreasing strain rate. At low strain rates, stable crack propagation was achieved and fracture toughness then decreased with decreasing strain rate. The results are discussed in terms of Williams' model for environmental fracture and the effect water has on the crazing process taking place at the crack tip.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Concerns over data quality have raised many questions related to sampling soils for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This paper was prepared in response to some of these questions and concerns expressed by Remedial Project Managers (RPMs) and On-Scene Coordinators (OSCs). The following questions are frequently asked: 1. Is there a specific device suggested for sampling soils for VOCs? 2. Are there significant losses of VOCs when transferring a soil sample from a sampling device (e.g., split spoon) into the sample container? 3. What is the best method for getting the sample from the split spoon (or other device) into the sample container? 4. Are there smaller devices such as subcore samplers available for collecting aliquots from the larger core and efficiently transferring the sample into the sample container? 5. Are certain containers better than others for shipping and storing soil samples for VOC analysis? 6. Are there any reliable preservation procedures for reducing VOC losses from soil samples and for extending holding times? Guidance is provided for selecting the most effective sampling device for collecting samples from soil matrices. The techniques for sample collection, sample handling, containerizing, shipment, and storage described in this paper reduce VOC losses and generally provide more representative samples for volatile organic analyses (VOA) than techniques in current use. For a discussion on the proper use of sampling equipment the reader should refer to other sources (Acker, 1974; U.S. EPA, 1983; U.S. EPA, 1986a). Soil, as referred to in this report, encompasses the mass (surface and subsurface) of unconsolidated mantle of weathered rock and loose material lying above solid rock. Further, a distinction must be made as to what fraction of the unconsolidated material is soil and what fraction is not. The soil component here is defined as all mineral and naturally occurring organic material that is 2 mm or less in size. This is the size normally used to differentiate between soils (consisting of sands, silts, and clays) and gravels. Although numerous sampling situations may be encountered, this paper focuses on three broad categories of sites that might be sampled for VOCs: 1. Open test pit or trench. 2. Surface soils (〈5 ft in depth). 3. Subsurface soils (〉5 ft in depth).
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1570-7458
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Yellow water traps are often used for sampling populations of flying aphids. This note suggests that the size and probably the shape of traps should be standardised, because trapping efficiency (nos. caught/unit area), and the relative attractiveness of traps to different species, depends on trap size. Aphidologists using water traps to compare mixed populations of flying aphids, should therefore compare catches from different traps with caution. Traps of three sizes were made up from individual trays, each 29×21.5×5cm, and painted Hansa yellow inside; 1 tray alone, 4 arranged in a 2×2 rectangle, and 9 in a 3×3 rectangle, gave trapping surfaces of approx. 625, 2500 and 5700 cm2 respectively. The traps were half-filled with water plus a drop of detergent, placed on bare land and daily catches collected on 19 days in June and July 1966.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Entomologia experimentalis et applicata 12 (1969), S. 469-470 
    ISSN: 1570-7458
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Entomologia experimentalis et applicata 15 (1972), S. 499-508 
    ISSN: 1570-7458
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Cet appareil portatif est utilisé pour dénombrer les fourmis coupeuses de feuilles (Attinae) ou les fragments qu'elles transportent, le long de leurs trajets dans les cultures ou les forêts tropicales. Il utilise une batterie de 12 volts comme source de puissance. Les fourmis sont amenées à passer sous un portique placé sur leur trajet, interceptant alors un faisceau lumineux entre la source et une cellule photo-électrique. Le portique fait de structures mêtalliques creuses et comportant une rampe d'accès en cuivre peut enjamber une piste de fourmis de 20 cms de large; les détails de sa construction sont donnés Fig. 1 et 2. Le circuit électronique à l'intérieur de la boîte de contrôle (Fig. 3) est arrangé de telle sorte qu'aucun courant ne passe tant qu'aucune fourmi ne traverse le faisceau lumineux entre la source et la cellule photo-électrique; c'est seulement lorsqu'une fourmi intercepte ce faisceau lumineux que le relais et le compteur sont mis en circuit. Le compteur permet la distinction entre une fourmi chargée et une fourmi sans fardeau, d'après la hauteur à laquelle la rampe d'accès et de passage sous le portique est ajustée par rapport au faisceau de lumière. L'efficacité du comptage dépend de l'espèce de fourmi et des caractéristiques de la partie du végétal qui est coupée et transportée (Fig. 4). Les causes habituelles d'erreurs qui peuvent se présenter pour les observations à l'extérieur sont passées en revue et des indications sont fournies en vue de les éviter. Un compteur enregistreur sur papier capable de détecter et enregistrer les fourmis passant à un rythme allant jusqu'à 250/minute pendant des intervalles de 15 minutes à 24 heures est également décrit. Pour réduire la consommation de papier enregistreur, un dispositif réducteur est fixé en avant du compteur de façon que ce dernier n'enregistre que tous les 10, 100 ou 1000 passages. En utilisant un déroulement du papier à la vitesse de 2,5 cms par heure, le compteur travaille sans arrêt pendant 3 jours. Le dispositif peut être modifié par compter d'autres insectes qui se déplacent habituellement le long des trajets bien définis.
    Notes: Abstract This portable ant counter counts foraging leafcutting ants, or the leaf fragments they carry, along trails in tropical crops or forest. Ants intercept a light beam as they pass under a gantry between the light source and a photocell. The counter distinguishes between laden and unladen ants and works with an efficiency of 10–120% depending on the species of ant and the characteristics of the vegetation cut. The design could be modified to count other insects that habitually walk along well-defined tracks.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1570-7458
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Sommaire Les populations terrestres et aériennes de l'espèce L. cerealium (Thysanoptères) étaient étudiées simultanément: des dissections ovariques étaient faites pour discerner les générations différentes. On peut arbitrairement diviser la vie de ces insectes en six périodes, basées principalement sur l'activité aérienne: au printemps les femelles se nourrissent pour la plupart d'herbes et de céréales d'hiver; en juin et juillet beaucoup d'elles passent sur les céréales de printemps, où elles pondent la plupart des oeufs dans les gaines des jeunes feuilles. Les femelles de la première génération laissent les céréales en aôut pour se nourrir d'herbes avant d'hiverner. Les Thysanoptères abandonnaient les épis dont la teneur en eau était approximativement moins de quarante-cinq pour cent. Quand le vent soufflait constamment du même côté l'infestation initiale était plus forte au bord du champ qui se trouvait exposé au vent.
    Notes: Abstract Terrestrial and aerial populations of L. cerealium were studied simultaneously; ovarian dissections were made to detect different generations. The annual life cycle can be arbitrarily divided into six stages based primarily on the amount of flight activity: the females feed mainly on winter cereals and grasses in spring, many moving to later sown cereals in June and July, where most eggs are laid in the sheaths of the young leaves. First generation females leave cereals in August to feed on grasses before entering hibernation. Wheat ears with a water content of less that approx. 45% were not favoured by thrips. When winds blew consistently from the same quarter the initial infestation was greatest on the windward edge of the wheat crop.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1570-7458
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Sommaire Les Thysanoptères qui flottaient autour et au-dessus d'un champ de blé étaient attrapés par le moyen de pièges à l'eau noirs, verts ou blancs, de pièges cylindriques qui étaient visqueuz et noirs et d'aspirateurs. De certaines espèces des genres Taeniothrips, Thrips et Aeolothrips étaient très attirées par le blanc mais pas par le vert ni le noir: les espèces Limothrips cerealium Hal., Chirothrips manicatus Hal., et Stenothrips gramium Uzel n'étaient pas notablement attirées par chacune de ces couleurs. Au niveau des épis les données obtenues avec les aspirateurs étaient plus justes que ne l'étaient celles obtenues avec les pièges à glu ou les pièges à eau: plus haut les pièges à glu indiquaient des données plus justes que les pièges à eau. Jusqu'à quinze mètres environ de hauteur la densité aérienne de toutes les espèces diminuaient progressivement, mais la rapidité de la diminution était différente entre les espèces.
    Notes: Abstract Thysanoptera drifting over and around a wheat field were trapped using black, green and white water traps, black cylindrical sticky traps and suction traps. Certain Taeniothrips spp., Thrips spp., and Aeolothrips spp. were strongly attracted to white but not to green or black; Limothrips cerealium Hal., Chirothrips manicatus Hal., and Stenothrips gramium Uzel were not markedly attracted to any of these colours. At crop level suction traps gave more consistent catches2 than either sticky or water traps; at higher levels, catches from sticky traps were more consistent than those from water traps. Up to 48 ft the aerial density of all species decreased with height but the rapidity of the decrease differed between species.
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