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  • 1
    Publication Date: 1987-01-09
    Description: The locations of a large number of earthquakes recorded at Rabaul caldera in Papua New Guinea from late 1983 to mid-1985 have produced a picture of this active caldera's structural boundary. The earthquake epicenters form an elliptical annulus about 10 kilometers long by 4 kilometers wide, centered in the southern part of the Rabaul volcanic complex. A set of events with well-constrained depth determinations shows a ring-fault structure that extends from the surface to a depth of about 4 kilometers and slopes steeply outward from the center of the caldera. This is the first geophysical data set that clearly outlines the orientation of an active caldera's bounding faults. This orientation, however, conflicts with the configuration of many other calderas and is not in keeping with currently preferred models of caldera formation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mori, J -- McKee, C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1987 Jan 9;235(4785):193-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17778631" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-12-07
    Description: The mechanics of great subduction earthquakes are influenced by the frictional properties, structure, and composition of the plate-boundary fault. We present observations of the structure and composition of the shallow source fault of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake and tsunami from boreholes drilled by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 343 and 343T. Logging-while-drilling and core-sample observations show a single major plate-boundary fault accommodated the large slip of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake rupture, as well as nearly all the cumulative interplate motion at the drill site. The localization of deformation onto a limited thickness (less than 5 meters) of pelagic clay is the defining characteristic of the shallow earthquake fault, suggesting that the pelagic clay may be a regionally important control on tsunamigenic earthquakes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chester, Frederick M -- Rowe, Christie -- Ujiie, Kohtaro -- Kirkpatrick, James -- Regalla, Christine -- Remitti, Francesca -- Moore, J Casey -- Toy, Virginia -- Wolfson-Schwehr, Monica -- Bose, Santanu -- Kameda, Jun -- Mori, James J -- Brodsky, Emily E -- Eguchi, Nobuhisa -- Toczko, Sean -- Expedition 343 and 343T Scientists -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Dec 6;342(6163):1208-11. doi: 10.1126/science.1243719.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Tectonophysics, Department of Geology and Geophysics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24311682" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-12-07
    Description: The frictional resistance on a fault during slip controls earthquake dynamics. Friction dissipates heat during an earthquake; therefore, the fault temperature after an earthquake provides insight into the level of friction. The Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 343 and 343T) installed a borehole temperature observatory 16 months after the March 2011 moment magnitude 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake across the fault where slip was ~50 meters near the trench. After 9 months of operation, the complete sensor string was recovered. A 0.31 degrees C temperature anomaly at the plate boundary fault corresponds to 27 megajoules per square meter of dissipated energy during the earthquake. The resulting apparent friction coefficient of 0.08 is considerably smaller than static values for most rocks.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Fulton, P M -- Brodsky, E E -- Kano, Y -- Mori, J -- Chester, F -- Ishikawa, T -- Harris, R N -- Lin, W -- Eguchi, N -- Toczko, S -- Expedition 343, 343T, and KR13-08 Scientists -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Dec 6;342(6163):1214-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1243641.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24311684" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 1993-04-09
    Description: The Landers earthquake, which had a moment magnitude (M(w)) of 7.3, was the largest earthquake to strike the contiguous United States in 40 years. This earthquake resulted from the rupture of five major and many minor right-lateral faults near the southern end of the eastern California shear zone, just north of the San Andreas fault. Its M(w) 6.1 preshock and M(w) 6.2 aftershock had their own aftershocks and foreshocks. Surficial geological observations are consistent with local and far-field seismologic observations of the earthquake. Large surficial offsets (as great as 6 meters) and a relatively short rupture length (85 kilometers) are consistent with seismological calculations of a high stress drop (200 bars), which is in turn consistent with an apparently long recurrence interval for these faults.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sieh, K -- Jones, L -- Hauksson, E -- Hudnut, K -- Eberhart-Phillips, D -- Heaton, T -- Hough, S -- Hutton, K -- Kanamori, H -- Lilje, A -- Lindvall, S -- McGill, S F -- Mori, J -- Rubin, C -- Spotila, J A -- Stock, J -- Thio, H K -- Treiman, J -- Wernicke, B -- Zachariasen, J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1993 Apr 9;260(5105):171-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17807175" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-09-16
    Description: The hexactinellids are a diverse group of predominantly deep sea sponges that synthesize elaborate fibrous skeletal systems of amorphous hydrated silica. As a representative example, members of the genus Euplectella have proved to be useful model systems for investigating structure–function relationships in these hierarchically ordered siliceous network-like composites. Despite recent...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-10-10
    Description: Non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) are the two prominent pathways responsible for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). NHEJ is not restricted to a cell-cycle stage, whereas HR is active primarily in the S/G2 phases suggesting there are cell cycle-specific mechanisms that play a role in the choice between NHEJ and HR. Here we show NHEJ is attenuated in S phase via modulation of the autophosphorylation status of the NHEJ factor DNA-PKcs at serine 2056 by the pro-HR factor BRCA1. BRCA1 interacts with DNA-PKcs in a cell cycle-regulated manner and this interaction is mediated by the tandem BRCT domain of BRCA1, but surprisingly in a phospho-independent manner. BRCA1 attenuates DNA-PKcs autophosphorylation via directly blocking the ability of DNA-PKcs to autophosphorylate. Subsequently, blocking autophosphorylation of DNA-PKcs at the serine 2056 phosphorylation cluster promotes HR-required DNA end processing and loading of HR factors to DSBs and is a possible mechanism by which BRCA1 promotes HR.
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-10-23
    Description: Mincle [macrophage inducible Ca2+-dependent (C-type) lectin; CLEC4E] and MCL (macrophage C-type lectin; CLEC4D) are receptors for the cord factor TDM (trehalose-6,6′-dimycolate), a unique glycolipid of mycobacterial cell-surface components, and activate immune cells to confer adjuvant activity. Although it is known that receptor–TDM interactions require both sugar and lipid moieties of...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-05-21
    Description: Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by abnormal motor coordination, cognitive decline and psychiatric disorders. This disease is caused by an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the gene encoding the protein huntingtin. Reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the brain, which results from transcriptional inhibition and axonal transport deficits mediated by mutant huntingtin, have been suggested as critical factors underlying selective neurodegeneration in both HD patients and HD mouse models. BDNF activates its high-affinity receptor TrkB and promotes neuronal survival; restoring BDNF signaling is thus of particular therapeutic interest. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of a small-molecule TrkB agonist 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF) and its synthetic derivative 4'-dimethylamino-7,8- dihydroxyflavone (4'-DMA-7,8-DHF) to protect neurons in the well-characterized N171-82Q HD mouse model. We found that chronic administration of 7, 8-DHF (5 mg/kg) or 4'-DMA-7,8-DHF (1 mg/kg) significantly improved motor deficits, ameliorated brain atrophy and extended survival in these N171-82Q HD mice. Moreover, 4'-DMA-7,8-DHF preserved DARPP32 levels in the striatum and rescued mutant huntingtin-induced impairment of neurogenesis in the N171-82Q HD mice. These data highlight consideration of TrkB as a therapeutic target in HD and suggest that small-molecule TrkB agonists that penetrate the brain have high potential to be further tested in clinical trials of HD.
    Print ISSN: 0964-6906
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2083
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-05-04
    Description: Sex-determining regions (SDRs) or mating-type ( MT ) loci in two sequenced volvocine algal species, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri , exhibit major differences in size, structure, gene content, and gametolog differentiation. Understanding the origin of these differences requires investigation of MT loci from related species. Here, we determined the sequences of the minus and plus MT haplotypes of the isogamous 16-celled volvocine alga, Gonium pectorale , which is more closely related to the multicellular V. carteri than to C. reinhardtii . Compared to C. reinhardtii MT , G. pectorale MT is moderately larger in size, and has a less complex structure, with only two major syntenic blocs of collinear gametologs. However, the gametolog content of G. pectorale MT has more overlap with that of V. carteri MT than with C. reinhardtii MT , while the allelic divergence between gametologs in G. pectorale is even lower than that in C. reinhardtii . Three key sex-related genes are conserved in G. pectorale MT : GpMID and GpMTD1 in MT –, and GpFUS1 in MT +. GpFUS1 protein exhibited specific localization at the plus -gametic mating structure, indicating a conserved function in fertilization. Our results suggest that the G. pectorale–V. carteri common ancestral MT experienced at least one major reformation after the split from C. reinhardtii , and that the V. carteri ancestral MT underwent a subsequent expansion and loss of recombination after the divergence from G. pectorale . These data begin to polarize important changes that occurred in volvocine MT loci, and highlight the potential for discontinuous and dynamic evolution in SDRs.
    Electronic ISSN: 2160-1836
    Topics: Biology
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-02-09
    Description: The 2011 moment magnitude 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake produced a maximum coseismic slip of more than 50 meters near the Japan trench, which could result in a completely reduced stress state in the region. We tested this hypothesis by determining the in situ stress state of the frontal prism from boreholes drilled by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program approximately 1 year after the earthquake and by inferring the pre-earthquake stress state. On the basis of the horizontal stress orientations and magnitudes estimated from borehole breakouts and the increase in coseismic displacement during propagation of the rupture to the trench axis, in situ horizontal stress decreased during the earthquake. The stress change suggests an active slip of the frontal plate interface, which is consistent with coseismic fault weakening and a nearly total stress drop.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lin, Weiren -- Conin, Marianne -- Moore, J Casey -- Chester, Frederick M -- Nakamura, Yasuyuki -- Mori, James J -- Anderson, Louise -- Brodsky, Emily E -- Eguchi, Nobuhisa -- Expedition 343 Scientists -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Feb 8;339(6120):687-90. doi: 10.1126/science.1229379.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Kochi Institute for Core Sample Research, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Nankoku, Japan. lin@jamstec.go.jp〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23393262" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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