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  • Articles  (90)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-02-17
    Description: The surface velocities predicted by the conventional subduction model are compared to velocities measured in a GPS array (surveyed in 1993, 1995, 1997, 2000, and 2004) spanning the PWS asperity. The observed velocities in the comparison have been corrected to remove the contributions from postseismic (1964 Alaska earthquake) mantle relaxation. Except at the most seaward monument (located on Middleton Island at the seaward edge of the continental shelf, just 50 km landward of the deformation front in the Aleutian Trench) the corrected velocities agree qualitatively with those predicted by an improved, 2-dimensional, backslip, subduction model in which the locked megathrust coincides with the plate interface identified by seismic refraction surveys and the backslip rate is equal to the plate convergence rate. A better fit to the corrected velocities is furnished by either a backslip rate 20% greater than the plate convergence rate or a 30% shallower megathrust. The shallow megathrust in the latter fit may be an artifact of the uniform half-space Earth model used in the inversion: Backslip at the plate convergence rate on the megathrust mapped by refraction surveys would fit the data as well if the rigidity of the underthrust plate were twice that of the overlying plate, a rigidity contrast higher than expected. The anomalous motion at Middleton Island is attributed to continuous slip at near the plate convergence rate on a postulated, listric fault that splays off the megathrust at depth of about 12 km and outcrops on the continental slope south-southeast of Middleton Island.
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-07-02
    Description: Middleton Island, located at the seaward edge of the continental shelf 50 km from the base of the inner wall of the Aleutian Trench, affords an opportunity to make land-based measurements of uplift near the toe of the Prince William Sound megathrust, site of the 1964, M = 9.2, Alaska earthquake. Leveling surveys (1973–1993) on Middleton Island indicate roughly uniform tilting (~1 µrad/a down to the northwest) of the island and GPS surveys (1993–2012) show an uplift rate of 14 mm/a of the island relative to fixed North America. The data are consistent with a combined (coseismic and postseismic) uplift (in m) due to the 1964 earthquake as a function of time τ (years after the earthquake) u ( τ ) = ( 3 . 5  +  1 . 21 log 10 [ 1  +  1 . 67 τ ] ) H ( τ ) where 3.5 is the coseismic uplift and H ( τ ) is 0 for τ  〈 0 and 1 otherwise. The current uplift on Middleton Island is attributed to continuous slip on a fault splaying off from the megathrust, and the long-term uplift is the superposition of the effects of past earthquakes, each earthquake being similar to the 1964 event. Then, the predicted uplift at time t due to a sequence of earthquakes at times t i would be . From studies of strandlines associated with the uplifted terraces on Middleton Island, Plafker et al . [1992] estimated the occurrence times of the last six earthquakes and measured the present-day elevations of those strandlines. The predicted uplift is in rough agreement with those measurements. About half of the predicted uplift is due to postseismic relaxation from previous earthquakes.
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-10-17
    Description: We have identified block structure in the Pacific Northwest (west of 116°W between 38°N and 49°N) by clustering GPS stations so that the same Euler vector approximates the velocity of each station in a cluster. Given the total number k of clusters desired, the clustering procedure finds the best assignment of stations to clusters. Clustering is calculated for k= 2 to 14. In geographic space, cluster boundaries that remain relatively stable as k is increased are tentatively identified as block boundaries. That identification is reinforced if the cluster boundary coincides with a geologic feature. Boundaries identified in northern California and Nevada are the Central Nevada Seismic Belt, the west side of the Northern Walker Lane Belt, and the Bartlett Springs Fault. Three blocks cover all of Oregon and Washington. The principal block boundary there extends west-northwest along the Brothers Fault Zone, then north and northwest along the eastern boundary of Siletzia, the accreted oceanic basement of the forearc. East of this boundary is the Intermountain block, its eastern boundary undefined. A cluster boundary at Cape Blanco subdivides the forearc along the faulted southern margin of Siletzia. South of Cape Blanco the Klamath Mountains-Basin and Range block extends east to the Central Nevada Seismic Belt and south to the Sierra Nevada-Great Valley block. The Siletzia block north of Cape Blanco coincides almost exactly with the accreted Siletz terrane. The cluster boundary in the eastern Olympic Peninsula may mark permanent shortening of Siletzia against the Intermountain block.
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-01-05
    Description: [1]  We find subdivisions within the Mojave Block using cluster analysis to identify groupings in the velocities observed at GPS stations there. The clusters are represented on a fault map by symbols located at the positions of the GPS stations, each symbol representing the cluster to which the velocity of that GPS station belongs. Fault systems that separate the clusters are readily identified on such a map. The most significant representation as judged by the gap test involves 4 clusters within the Mojave Block. The fault sy stems bounding the clusters from east to west are 1) the faults defining the eastern boundary of the Northeast Mojave Domain extended southward to connect to the Hector Mine rupture, 2) the Calico-Paradise fault system, 3) the Landers-Blackwater fault system, and 4) the Helendale-Lockhart fault system. This division of the Mojave Block is very similar to that proposed by Meade and Hager [2005]. However, no cluster boundary coincides with the Garlock Fault, the northern boundary of the Mojave Block. Rather, the clusters appear to continue without interruption from the Mojave Block north into the southern Walker Lane Belt, similar to the continuity across the Garlock Fault of the shear zone along the Blackwater-Little Lake fault system observed by Peltzer et al [2001]. Mapped traces of individual faults in the Mojave Block terminate within the block and do not continue across the Garlock Fault [ Dokka and Travis , 1990a]. © 2013 American Geophysical Union. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-17
    Description: [1]  The deformation across the Sierra Nevada Block, the Walker Lane Belt, and the Central Nevada Seismic Belt (CNSB) between 38.5°N and 40.5°N has been analyzed by clustering GPS velocities to identify coherent blocks. Cluster analysis determines the number of clusters required and assigns the GPS stations to the proper clusters. The clusters are shown on a fault map by symbols located at the positions of the GPS stations, each symbol representing the cluster to which the velocity of that GPS station belongs. Fault systems that separate the clusters are readily identified on such a map. Four significant clusters are identified. Those clusters are strips separated by (from west to east) the Mohawk Valley-Genoa fault system, the Pyramid Lake-Wassuk fault system, and the Central Nevada Seismic Belt. The strain rates within the westernmost 3 clusters approximate simple right-lateral shear (~13 nstrain/a) across vertical planes roughly parallel to the cluster boundaries. Clustering does not recognize the longitudinal segmentation of the Walker Lane Belt into domains dominated by either northwesterly trending, right-lateral faults or northeasterly trending, left-lateral faults.
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-02-03
    Description: I have used Euler-vector clustering to assign 469 GEONET stations in southwest Japan to k clusters ( k =2, 3,..., 9) so that for any k the velocities of stations within each cluster are most consistent with rigid-block motion on a sphere. That is, I attempt to explain the raw (i. e., uncorrected for strain accumulation), 1996-2006 velocities of those 469 GPS stations by rigid motion of k clusters on the surface of a spherical Earth. Because block geometry is maintained as strain accumulates, Euler-vector clustering may better approximate the block geometry than the values of the associated Euler vectors. The microplate solution for each k is constructed by merging contiguous clusters that have closely similar Euler vectors. The best solution consists of three microplates arranged along the Nankaido Trough-Ryukyu Trench between the Amurian and Philippine Sea Plates. One of these microplates, the South Kyushu Microplate (an extension of the Ryukyu forearc into the southeast corner of Kyushu), had previously been identified from paleomagnetic rotations. Relative to ITRF2000 the three microplates rotate at different rates about neighboring poles located close to the northwest corner of Shikoku. The microplate model is identical to that proposed in the block model of Wallace et al. (2009) except in southernmost Kyushu. On Shikoku and Honshu, but not Kyushu, the microplate model is consistent with that proposed in the block models of Nishimura & Hashimoto (2006) and Loveless & Meade (2010) without the low-slip-rate boundaries proposed in the latter.
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-04-23
    Description: [1]  We find subdivisions within the Mojave Block using cluster analysis to identify groupings in the velocities observed at GPS stations there. The clusters are represented on a fault map by symbols located at the positions of the GPS stations, each symbol representing the cluster to which the velocity of that GPS station belongs. Fault systems that separate the clusters are readily identified on such a map. The most significant representation as judged by the gap test involves 4 clusters within the Mojave Block. The fault systems bounding the clusters from east to west are 1) the faults defining the eastern boundary of the Northeast Mojave Domain extended southward to connect to the Hector Mine rupture, 2) the Calico-Paradise fault system, 3) the Landers-Blackwater fault system, and 4) the Helendale-Lockhart fault system. This division of the Mojave Block is very similar to that proposed by Meade and Hager [ ]. However, no cluster boundary coincides with the Garlock Fault, the northern boundary of the Mojave Block. Rather, the clusters appear to continue without interruption from the Mojave Block north into the southern Walker Lane Belt, similar to the continuity across the Garlock Fault of the shear zone along the Blackwater-Little Lake fault system observed by Peltzer et al . [ ]. Mapped traces of individual faults in the Mojave Block terminate within the block and do not continue across the Garlock Fault [ Dokka and Travis , ].
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-03-09
    Description: Cluster analysis offers an agnostic way to organize and explore features of the current GPS velocity field without reference to geologic information or physical models using information only contained in the velocity field itself. We have used cluster analysis of the southern California Global Positioning System (GPS) velocity field to determine the partitioning of Pacific-North America relative motion onto major regional faults. Our results indicate the large-scale kinematics of the region is best described with two boundaries of high velocity gradient, one centered on the Coachella section of the San Andreas fault and the Eastern California Shear Zone and the other defined by the San Jacinto fault south of Cajon Pass and the San Andreas Fault farther north. The ~120-km-long strand of the San Andreas between Cajon Pass and Coachella Valley (often termed the San Bernardino and San Gorgonio sections) is thus currently of secondary importance and carries lesser amounts of slip over most or all of its length. We show these first order results are present in maps of the smoothed GPS velocity field itself. They are also generally consistent with currently available, loosely bounded geologic and geodetic fault slip rate estimates that alone do not provide useful constraints on the large scale partitioning we show here. Our analysis does not preclude the existence of smaller blocks and more block boundaries in southern California. However, attempts to identify smaller blocks along and adjacent to the San Gorgonio section were not successful.
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 1978-11-24
    Description: The plate tectonics model of the Pacific moving northwest relative to North America implies that the regional strain in California should be simple shear across a vertical plane striking N45 degrees W or equivalently equal parts of north-south contraction and east-west extension. Measurements of the strain accumulation at seven separate sites in southern California in the interval 1972 through 1978 indicate a remarkably consistent uniaxial north-south contraction of about 0.3 part per million per year; the expected east-west extension is absent. It is not clear whether the period from 1972 through 1978 is anomalous or whether the secular strain in southern California is indeed a uniaxial north-south contraction.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Savage, J C -- Prescott, W H -- Lisowski, M -- King, N -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1978 Nov 24;202(4370):883-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17752460" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 1982-08-06
    Description: Changes in elevation between 1975 and October 1980 along a leveling line across the Long Valley caldera indicate a broad (half-width, 15 kilometers) uplift (maximum, 0.25 meter) centered on the old resurgent dome. This uplift is consistent with reinflation of a magma reservoir at a depth of about 10 kilometers. Stresses generated by this magmatic resurgence may have caused the sequence of four magnitude 6 earthquakes near Mammoth Lakes in May 1980.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Savage, J C -- Clark, M M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1982 Aug 6;217(4559):531-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17820541" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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