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  • 1
  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pharmacy world & science 4 (1982), S. 89-90 
    ISSN: 1573-739X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The bioavailability of methotrexate 10 mg tablets has been determined to be 62±16%. After administration of a dose of 30 mg/m2 a maximum plasma concentration of ca. 20. 10−7 mole/l was found after ca. 1.7 h. The methotrexate plasma half-life was 2.4 h. It was concluded that the 10 mg tablet formulation at the dosage investigated is a suitable clinical methotrexate preparation.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1862-0760
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract In the eighties, Iwahara discovered that doped Sr and Ba cerates show significant proton conduction, at high temperature, and in hydrogen- or water-containing atmosphere [1]. Begin ‘90 it was proved that also doped zirconates (Sr, Ba, Ca) join this family of proton conducting perovskites [2]. Within this group, indium doped CaZrO3 is one of the more interesting materials for applications, being mechanically and chemically particularly stable, and producible in very dense form. Specifically, it was already succesfully incorporated in a hydrogen sensor for liquid aluminium [3]. In principle, this sensor works as a simple electrochemical hydrogen concentration cell described by Nernst. However, as already remarked phenomenologically from the beginning [1], a hydrogen concentration cell using these perovskites shows the theoretically predicted emf, only in the presence of humidity. In this paper we want to go deeper into the reasons for this phenomenon.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Plant ecology 145 (1999), S. 83-90 
    ISSN: 1573-5052
    Keywords: Dispersal ; Disturbance ; Granivory ; Germinable seed
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The sources of seed for seedbank build-up in an acidic grassland were identified from analysis of differences in seedbank build-up over one year between plots where the input of rabbit pellets to ‘seed-free’ soil had either been left or removed. In parallel, the flux of seed arriving in rabbit pellets was monitored. Pellet seed content and total seed input were highest in late summer/early autumn and again in the spring. The seed content of the pellets was dominated by a small number of species: Sagina apetala, Senecio jacobaea, Urtica dioica and Veronica arvensis. Smaller seeded species were more likely to be present as germinable seed in the pellets. Seedbank build-up as a result of wind, splash or adhesive dispersal totalled 547 seedsm2. The additional effect of allowing seed input in pellets was 267 seedsm2, though this increase was not significant. The total increase in seedbank over one year was equivalent to 15–20% of the seedbank present in undisturbed soil. Eight species showed a significant build-up of seed in the seedbank over one year as a result of all means of dispersal, but only Myosotis discolor showed a significantly higher soil germinable seed content in the plots where pellets had been allowed to remain in situ. The build-up of seed in the seedbank is contrasted with the build-up of vegetation on disturbed areas within the same system.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Aquatic ecology 20 (1986), S. 17-25 
    ISSN: 1573-5125
    Keywords: Loosdrecht Lakes ; hydrology ; water transport ; eutrophication
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The history of eutrophication of the Loosdrecht Lakes system and the differences in trophic state of the compartments of this system are described from a hydrological point of view. Groundwater movement was found to be of paramount importance. This groundwater transport induced a horizontal surface water transport with concomitant biomass from Loosdrecht Lakes to Lake Breukeleveen, which explains partly the more eutrophic situation in the latter lake. The article summarizes several internal WOL-reports (ENGELEN and KAL, 1985; HETTLING, 1985a, b; KUHNEL, 1985; TEUNISSEN, 1985).
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Contributions to the Chemistry of Sulfur. 115. Crystal and Molecular Structure of BenzopentathiepineThe structure of benzopentathiepine has been determined from three-dimensional single-crystal X-ray data. The crystal are monoclinic, space group P21/c, with 4 molecules in the unit cell of dimensions a = 6.942(4) Å, b = 10.223(10) Å, c = 13.015(8) Å, β = 102,15(10)°. The conformation of the seven-membered ring is the chair form. Details of the conformation are discussed. Bond distances, bond angles, and dihedral angles are compared with those in other molecules, which have similar structure.
    Notes: Die Struktur von Benzopentathiepin wurde aus Einkristalldaten röntgenographisch bestimmt. Die Kristalle sind monoklin, Raumgruppe P21/c, mit 4 Molekeln in der Elementarzelle. Die Gitterkonstanten sind: a = 6,942(4) Å, b = 10,223(10) Å, c = 13,015(8) Å, β = 102,15(10)°. Der siebengliedrige Ring liegt in der Sesselkonformation vor. Einzelheiten der Konformation werden diskutiert. Bindungslängen und -winkel sowie die Diederwinkel werden mit denen anderer Molekeln ähnlicher Struktur verglichen.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Hydrates of Barium Chloride. X-ray, Thermoanalytical, Raman, and I.R. DataIn the system BaCl2—H2O the hydrates BaCl2 · 2 H2O, BaCl2 · 1 H2O, BaCl2 · 1/2 H2O, and BaCl2 · uH2O were obtained. X-ray powder data, i.r. and Raman spectra, as well as thermoanalytical measurements (TG, DTA) are reported. BaCl2 · 1 H2O and BaCl2 · 1/2 H2O, which are both isotype with the corresponding hydrates of SrCl2, were prepared by dehydration of BaCl2 · 2 H2O or by back hydration of anhydrous BaCl2 with the calculated amounts of water. BaCl2 · uH2O (u ≍ 1) is formed as the primary product by the reaction of anhydrous BaCl2 with water vapour at room temperature. Preparation methods of salt hydrates by controlled back hydration of the anhydrous salts are reported.
    Notes: Im System BaCl2—H2O wurden folgende Hydrate erhalten: BaCl2 · 2 H2O, BaCl2 · 1 H2O, BaCl2 · 1/2 H2O und BaCl2 · uH2O. Röntgenpulverdaten, IR- und Raman-Spektren sowie das Ergebnis thermoanalytischer Messungen (TG, DTA) werden mitgeteilt. BaCl2 · 1 H2O und BaCl2 · 1/2 H2O, die mit den entsprechenden Hydraten des SrCl2 isotyp sind, werden beim Entwässern von BaCl2 · 2 H2O oder durch Umsetzen von wasserfreiem BaCl2 mit der berechneten Menge Wasser erhalten. BaCl2 · uH2O (u ≍ 1) bildet sich als primäres Reaktionsprodukt bei der Umsetzung von wasserfreiem BaCl2 mit Wasserdampf bei Raumtemperatur. Die Darstellung phasenreiner niederer Salzhydrate durch kontrollierte Rückbewässerung der wasserfreien Salze wird beschrieben.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Neutron Diffraction Studies of SrBr2 · H2O and SrI2 · H2O, Symmetrically and Asymmetrically Bonded Water MoleculesSingle crystal neutron diffraction studies were performed on the isostructural (space group Pnma) SrBr2 · H2O and SrI2 · H2O. Lengths and structure of the hydrogen bonds are correlated with Raman and IR spectroscopic data. The bifurcated and trifurcated H-bonds present are altogether significantly stronger than linear ones with similar H…Br and H…I distances, respectively. In the case of SrI2 · H2O, the H-bonds of the two hydrogen atoms of the water molecules exhibit equal strength (symmetric water molecule) as shown by the respective OH vibrational energies despite the different H…I distances. The water molecule of SrBr2 · H2O is asymmetrically bonded (different strength of the H-bonds).
    Notes: An den isotypen Hydraten SrBr2 · H2O und SrI2 · H2O (Raumgruppe Pnma) wurden Einkristallneutronenbeugungsmessungen vorgenommen. Die Bindungslängen sowie die Anordnung der verzweigten Wasserstoffbrücken werden mit Raman- und IR-spektroskopischen Daten korreliert. Die zwei- bzw. dreifach verzweigten Wasserstoffbrücken sind insgesamt signifikant stärker als gleich lange lineare Brücken zu Br--und I--Ionen. Die von den beiden Wasserstoffatomen des SrI2 · H2O gebildeten H-Brücken sind, wie die entsprechenden OH-Schwingungsfrequenzen zeigen, trotz der unterschiedlichen H…I-Abstände gleich stark (H2O symmetrisch). Das Kristallwassermolekül des SrBr2 · H2O ist asymmetrisch gebunden (unterschiedlich starke H-Brücken).
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Zeitschrift für anorganische Chemie 566 (1988), S. 55-61 
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Crystal Structure, F.I.R., and Raman Spectra of GaCrSe3The crystal structure of GaCrSe3 oP20 was determined by single crystal X-ray methods (final R = 1.6% for 949 observed reflections, I 〉 2σI). GaCrSe3 crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pnma with Z = 4 (CuTaS3 type) and a = 1011.82(7), b = 373.45(3), and c = 1239.2(1) pm. The structure is built up on rectangular columns in [010] of edge shared GaSe4 tetrahedra and CrSe6 octahedra of the sequence (GaSe4)(CrSe6)2(GaSe4) in [101] and [101], respectively, which are connected via the corners in such a manner that channels in [010] of trigonal prismatic cavities are formed. The single crystals were grown by vapour phase transport method using I2 as transporting agent. The f.i.r. and Raman spectra of GaCrSe3 as well as a group theoretical treatment of the phonon modes are reported. In the ternary system Ga2Se3-Cr2Se3, monoclinic Ga1,3Cr0,7Se3 and hexagonal CrGa1,66Se4 (FeGaS4-type) have been established additionally to the orthorhombic GaCrSe3.
    Notes: Die Kristallstruktur der bisher nicht beschriebenen Verbindung GaCrSe3oP20 wurde anhand von Einkristalldaten bestimmt (R = 1,6% für 949 beobachtete (I 〉 2σI) Reflexe). GaCrSe3 kristallisiert in der orthorhombischen Raumgruppe Pnma mit Z = 4 (CuTaS3-Typ) sowie a = 1011,82(7), b = 373,45(3) und c = 1239,2(1) pm. Der Struktur liegen rechteckige Säulen in [010] aus kantenverknüpften CrSe6-Oktaedern und GaSe4-Tetraedern der Folge (GaSe4)(CrSe6)2(GaSe4) in [101] bzw. [101] zugrunde, die über die Ecken der Oktaeder- und Tetraederbaueinheiten so verknüpft sind, daß in [010] angeordnete Kanäle mit trigonal-prismatischen Lücken gebildet werden. Die Darstellung von Einkristallen des GaCrSe3 erfolgte durch Gasphasen-transport mit Iod. Das FIR- und Ramanspektrum des GaCrSe3 sowie die Schwingungsabzählung der Gitterschwingungen dieses Strukturtyps werden mitgeteilt. Neben dem orthorhombischen GaCrSe3 existieren im System Ga2Se3-Cr2Se3 monoklines Ga1,3Cr0,7Se3 und hexagonales CrGa1,66Se4 (FeGa2S4-Typ).
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