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  • 1
  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2003. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 18 (2003): 1086, doi:10.1029/2003PA000888.
    Description: Benthic foraminiferal Cd/Ca from an intermediate depth, western South Atlantic core documents the history of southward penetration of North Atlantic Intermediate Water (NAIW). Cd seawater estimates (CdW) for the last glacial are consistent with the production of NAIW and its export into the South Atlantic. At ∼14.5 ka concurrently with the onset of the Bølling-Allerød to Younger Dryas cooling, the NAIW contribution to the South Atlantic began to decrease, marking the transition from a glacial circulation pattern to a Younger Dryas circulation. High CdW in both the deep North Atlantic and the intermediate South Atlantic imply reduced export of deep and intermediate water during the Younger Dryas and a significant decrease in northward oceanic heat transport. A modern circulation was achieved at ∼9 ka, concurrently with the establishment of Holocene warmth in the North Atlantic region, further supporting a close linkage between deepwater variability and North Atlantic climate.
    Description: This work was supported by an MIT John Lyons Fellowship, a WHOI Ocean and Climate Change Institute Fellowship, and NSF grant OCE96-33499.
    Keywords: Cd/Ca ; δ13C ; Younger Dryas ; Intermediate water ; Foraminifera
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2005. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 20 (2005): PA1017, doi:10.1029/2004PA001021.
    Description: Oxygen and carbon isotopic data were produced on the benthic foraminiferal taxa Cibicidoides and Planulina from 25 new piston cores, gravity cores, and multicores from the Brazil margin. The cores span water depths from about 400 to 3000 m and intersect the major water masses in this region. These new data fill a critical gap in the South Atlantic Ocean and provide the motivation for updating the classic glacial western Atlantic δ13C transect of Duplessy et al. (1988). The distribution of δ13C of ΣCO2 requires the presence of three distinct water masses in the glacial Atlantic Ocean: a shallow (∼1000 m), southern source water mass with an end-member δ13C value of about 0.3–0.5‰ VPDB, a middepth (∼1500 m), northern source water mass with an end-member value of about 1.5‰, and a deep (〉2000 m), southern source water with an end-member value of less than −0.2‰, and perhaps as low as the −0.9‰ values observed in the South Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean (Ninnemann and Charles, 2002). The origins of the water masses are supported by the meridional gradients in benthic foraminiferal δ18O. A revised glacial section of deep water δ13C documents the positions and gradients among these end-member intermediate and deep water masses. The large property gradients in the presence of strong vertical mixing can only be maintained by a vigorous overturning circulation.
    Description: This research was supported by the National Science Foundation by grants OCE-9986748 and OCE-9905605.
    Keywords: Ice age ; Ocean circulation ; Ocean chemistry
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2008. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 23 (2008): PA3203, doi:10.1029/2007PA001532.
    Description: We use geochemical and isotope measurements on a 225-year old brain coral (Diploria labyrinthiformis) from the south shore of Bermuda (64°W, 32°N) to construct a record of decadal-to-centennial-scale climate variability. The coral was collected alive, and annual density bands visible in X radiographs delineate cold and warm seasons allowing for precise dating. Coral skeletons incorporate strontium (Sr) and calcium (Ca) in relative proportions inversely to the sea surface temperature (SST) in which the skeleton is secreted. Previous studies on this and other coral colonies from this region document the ability to reconstruct mean annual and wintertime SST using Sr/Ca measurements ( Goodkin et al., 2007 , 2005). The coral-based records of SST for the past 2 centuries show abrupt shifts at both decadal and centennial timescales and suggest that SST at the end of the Little Ice Age (between 1840 and 1860) was 1.5° ± 0.4°C colder than today (1990s). Coral-reconstructed SST has a greater magnitude change than does a gridded instrumental SST record from this region. This may result from several physical processes including high rates of mesoscale eddy propagation in this region. Oxygen isotope values (δ 18O) of the coral skeleton reflect changes in both temperature and the δ 18O of seawater (δOw), where δOw is proportional to sea surface salinity (SSS). We show in this study that mean annual and wintertime δ 18O of the carbonate (δOc) are correlated to both SST and SSS, but a robust, quantitative measure of SSS is not found with present calibration data. In combination, however, the Sr/Ca and δOc qualitatively reconstruct lower salinities at the end of the Little Ice Age relative to modern day. Temperature changes agree with other records from the Bermuda region. Radiative and atmospheric forcing may explain some of the SST variability, but the scales of implied changes in SST and SSS indicate large-scale ocean circulation impacts as well.
    Description: A WHOI OCCI Fellowship (N.F.G.), and grants from NSF (OCE-0402728) and WHOI (N.F.G., K.A.H., A.L.C., and M.S.M.) supported this work.
    Keywords: Coral geochemistry ; Little Ice Age ; Temperature and salinity
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2009. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 24 (2009): PA3209, doi:10.1029/2008PA001717.
    Description: The density structure across the Florida Straits is reconstructed for the last 8000 years from oxygen isotope measurements on foraminifera in sediment cores. The oxygen isotope measurements suggest that the density contrast across the Florida Current increased over this time period. The magnitude of this change corresponds to an increase in the geostrophic transport referenced to 800 m water depth of 4 sverdrups (Sv) over the last 8000 years. The spatial and seasonal distribution of incoming solar radiation due to changes in the Earth's orbit has caused systematic changes in the atmospheric circulation, including a southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone over the last 8000 years. These changes in atmospheric circulation and the associated wind-driven currents of the upper ocean could readily account for a 4 Sv increase in the strength of the Florida Current. We see no evidence in our data for dramatic changes in the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation over this time period.
    Description: This work was supported by NSF grants OCE-9984989/OCE-0428803 and OCE-0096472 to J.L.-S. and NSF grants OCE-0096469 to W.B.C.
    Keywords: Florida Current ; Holocene ; Foraminifera
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2013. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Nature Publishing Group for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Nature Geoscience 7 (2014):144–150, doi:10.1038/ngeo2045.
    Description: Heinrich events - surges of icebergs into the North Atlantic Ocean - punctuated the last glacial period. The events are associated with millennial-scale cooling in the Northern Hemisphere. Freshwater from the melting icebergs is thought to have interrupted the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, thus minimizing heat transport into the northern North Atlantic. The northward flow of warm water passes through the Florida Straits and is reflected in the distribution of seawater properties in this region. Here we investigate the northward flow through this region over the past 40,000 years using oxygen isotope measurements of benthic foraminifera from two cores on either side of the Florida Straits, which allow us to estimate water density, which is related to flow via the thermal wind relation. We infer a substantial reduction of flow during Heinrich Event 1 and the Heinrich-like Younger Dryas cooling, but little change during Heinrich Events 2 and 3, which occurred during an especially cold phase of the last glacial period. We speculate that because glacial circulation was already weakened before the onset of Heinrich Events 2 and 3, freshwater forcing had little additional effect. However, low-latitude climate perturbations were observed during all events. We therefore suggest these perturbations may not have been directly caused by changes in heat transport associated with Atlantic overturning circulation as commonly assumed.
    Description: The authors acknowledge the US National Science Foundation (OCE-0096472, OCE-0648258 and OCE-1102743), a grant from the Comer Science and Education Foundation and a Rutt Bridges Undergraduate Research Fellowship to L.G.H. for funding this work. PC acknowledges the supports from the Natural Science Foundation of China (40921004 and 40930844). S.M. was funded through the DFG Research Center/Cluster of Excellence “The Ocean in the Earth System”.
    Description: 2014-07-12
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-08-03
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2016. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of American Association for the Advancement of Science for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Science 353 (2016): 470-474, doi:10.1126/science.aaf5529.
    Description: The most recent ice age was characterized by rapid and hemispherically asynchronous climate oscillations, whose origin remains unresolved. Variations in oceanic meridional heat transport may contribute to these repeated climate changes, which were most pronounced during the glacial interval twenty-five to sixty thousand years ago known as marine isotope stage 3 (MIS3). Here we examine a sequence of climate and ocean circulation proxies throughout MIS3 at high resolution in a deep North Atlantic sediment core, combining the kinematic tracer Pa/Th with the most widely applied deep water-mass tracer, δ13CBF. These indicators reveal that Atlantic overturning circulation was reduced during every cool northern stadial, with the greatest reductions during episodic iceberg discharges from the Hudson Strait, and that sharp northern warming followed reinvigorated overturning. These results provide direct evidence for the ocean's persistent, central role in abrupt glacial climate change.
    Description: This research was supported in part by a NSF Graduate Research Fellowship to L.G.H, by awards from the Comer Science and Education Foundation and NSF ATM-0936496 to J.F.M., and an award from the LDEO Climate Center to L.G.H. and J.F.M. LDK and WBC were supported by ATM-0836472, and LDK was supported by AGS 1548160.
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-12-03
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2017. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 32 (2017): 512–530, doi:10.1002/2016PA003072.
    Description: The carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of seawater provides valuable insight on ocean circulation, air-sea exchange, the biological pump, and the global carbon cycle and is reflected by the δ13C of foraminifera tests. Here more than 1700 δ13C observations of the benthic foraminifera genus Cibicides from late Holocene sediments (δ13CCibnat) are compiled and compared with newly updated estimates of the natural (preindustrial) water column δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDICnat) as part of the international Ocean Circulation and Carbon Cycling (OC3) project. Using selection criteria based on the spatial distance between samples, we find high correlation between δ13CCibnat and δ13CDICnat, confirming earlier work. Regression analyses indicate significant carbonate ion (−2.6 ± 0.4) × 10−3‰/(μmol kg−1) [CO32−] and pressure (−4.9 ± 1.7) × 10−5‰ m−1 (depth) effects, which we use to propose a new global calibration for predicting δ13CDICnat from δ13CCibnat. This calibration is shown to remove some systematic regional biases and decrease errors compared with the one-to-one relationship (δ13CDICnat = δ13CCibnat). However, these effects and the error reductions are relatively small, which suggests that most conclusions from previous studies using a one-to-one relationship remain robust. The remaining standard error of the regression is generally σ ≅ 0.25‰, with larger values found in the southeast Atlantic and Antarctic (σ ≅ 0.4‰) and for species other than Cibicides wuellerstorfi. Discussion of species effects and possible sources of the remaining errors may aid future attempts to improve the use of the benthic δ13C record.
    Description: U.S. National Science Foundation Grant Numbers: 1634719, 0926735, 1125181; Swiss National Science Foundation Grant Numbers: PP00P2_144811, 200021_163003; Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR); Canadian Foundation for Innovation (CFI); Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC)
    Description: 2017-12-03
    Keywords: Carbon ; Isotopes ; Benthic ; Foraminifera ; Calibration
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-11-01
    Description: © The Author(s), 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology 33 (2018): 1013-1034, doi:10.1029/2018PA003408.
    Description: The chemical composition of benthic foraminifera from marine sediment cores provides information on how glacial subsurface water properties differed from modern, but separating the influence of changes in the origin and end‐member properties of subsurface water from changes in flows and mixing is challenging. Spatial gaps in coverage of glacial data add to the uncertainty. Here we present new data from cores collected from the Demerara Rise in the western tropical North Atlantic, including cores from the modern tropical phosphate maximum at Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) depths. The results suggest lower phosphate concentration and higher carbonate saturation state within the phosphate maximum than modern despite similar carbon isotope values, consistent with less accumulation of respired nutrients and carbon, and reduced air‐sea gas exchange in source waters to the region. An inversion of new and published glacial data confirms these inferences and further suggests that lower preformed nutrients in AAIW, and partial replacement of this still relatively high‐nutrient AAIW with nutrient‐depleted, carbonate‐rich waters sourced from the region of the modern‐day northern subtropics, also contributed to the observed changes. The results suggest that glacial preformed and remineralized phosphate were lower throughout the upper Atlantic, but deep phosphate concentration was higher. The inversion, which relies on the fidelity of the paleoceanographic data, suggests that the partial replacement of North Atlantic sourced deep water by Southern Ocean Water was largely responsible for the apparent deep North Atlantic phosphate increase, rather than greater remineralization.
    Description: National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant Numbers: OCE‐0750880, OCE‐1335191, OCE‐1558341, OCE‐1536380; Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) Grant Numbers: 27007592, 27000808
    Keywords: Glacial Atlantic circulation ; Preformed phosphate ; Remineralized phosphate ; Antarctic Intermediate Water ; Nutrient redistribution ; Tropical phosphate maximum
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Nature Publishing Group, 2006. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Nature Publishing Group for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Nature 441 (2006): 329-332, doi:10.1038/nature04745.
    Description: Climatic processes are intimately coupled so that understanding variability at any one time-scale requires some understanding of the whole. Spectra of Earth’s surface temperature exemplify this interdependence, having a continuum of variability following a power-law scaling1–7. But while specific modes of interannual variability are relatively well understood8, 9, the general controls on continuum variability are uncertain and usually described as purely stochastic processes10–13. Here we show that power-laws scale with the size of annual (1 yr) and Milankovitch period (23,000 and 41,000 yr) cycles. The annual cycle corresponds to scaling at monthly to decadal periods, while millennial and longer periods are tied to the Milankovitch cycles. Thus the annual, Milankovitch, and continuum of temperature variability together represent the response to deterministic insolation forcing. The identification of a deterministic control on the continuum provides insight into the mechanisms governing interannual and longer period climate variability.
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