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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: The RAS/MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) signalling pathway is frequently deregulated in non-small-cell lung cancer, often through KRAS activating mutations. A single endogenous mutant Kras allele is sufficient to promote lung tumour formation in mice but malignant progression requires additional genetic alterations. We recently showed that advanced lung tumours from Kras(G12D/+);p53-null mice frequently exhibit Kras(G12D) allelic enrichment (Kras(G12D)/Kras(wild-type) 〉 1) (ref. 7), implying that mutant Kras copy gains are positively selected during progression. Here we show, through a comprehensive analysis of mutant Kras homozygous and heterozygous mouse embryonic fibroblasts and lung cancer cells, that these genotypes are phenotypically distinct. In particular, Kras(G12D/G12D) cells exhibit a glycolytic switch coupled to increased channelling of glucose-derived metabolites into the tricarboxylic acid cycle and glutathione biosynthesis, resulting in enhanced glutathione-mediated detoxification. This metabolic rewiring is recapitulated in mutant KRAS homozygous non-small-cell lung cancer cells and in vivo, in spontaneous advanced murine lung tumours (which display a high frequency of Kras(G12D) copy gain), but not in the corresponding early tumours (Kras(G12D) heterozygous). Finally, we demonstrate that mutant Kras copy gain creates unique metabolic dependences that can be exploited to selectively target these aggressive mutant Kras tumours. Our data demonstrate that mutant Kras lung tumours are not a single disease but rather a heterogeneous group comprising two classes of tumours with distinct metabolic profiles, prognosis and therapeutic susceptibility, which can be discriminated on the basis of their relative mutant allelic content. We also provide the first, to our knowledge, in vivo evidence of metabolic rewiring during lung cancer malignant progression.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4780242/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4780242/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kerr, Emma M -- Gaude, Edoardo -- Turrell, Frances K -- Frezza, Christian -- Martins, Carla P -- MC_UU_12022/4/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_UU_12022/6/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 3;531(7592):110-3. doi: 10.1038/nature16967. Epub 2016 Feb 24.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉MRC Cancer Unit, University of Cambridge, Box 197, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0XZ, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26909577" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alleles ; Animals ; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy/genetics/metabolism/pathology ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/drug effects/genetics/metabolism/pathology ; Citric Acid Cycle ; DNA Copy Number Variations/*genetics ; Disease Progression ; Female ; Fibroblasts/metabolism ; Genes, ras/*genetics ; Genotype ; Glucose/*metabolism ; Glutathione/biosynthesis/metabolism ; *Glycolysis ; Lung Neoplasms/*drug therapy/genetics/*metabolism/pathology ; Male ; Mice ; Mutation/*genetics ; Oxidation-Reduction ; Phenotype ; Prognosis
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2010-11-26
    Description: Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, with an overall 5-year survival rate of only 10-15%. Deregulation of the Ras pathway is a frequent hallmark of NSCLC, often through mutations that directly activate Kras. p53 is also frequently inactivated in NSCLC and, because oncogenic Ras can be a potent trigger of p53 (ref. 3), it seems likely that oncogenic Ras signalling has a major and persistent role in driving the selection against p53. Hence, pharmacological restoration of p53 is an appealing therapeutic strategy for treating this disease. Here we model the probable therapeutic impact of p53 restoration in a spontaneously evolving mouse model of NSCLC initiated by sporadic oncogenic activation of endogenous Kras. Surprisingly, p53 restoration failed to induce significant regression of established tumours, although it did result in a significant decrease in the relative proportion of high-grade tumours. This is due to selective activation of p53 only in the more aggressive tumour cells within each tumour. Such selective activation of p53 correlates with marked upregulation in Ras signal intensity and induction of the oncogenic signalling sensor p19(ARF)( )(ref. 6). Our data indicate that p53-mediated tumour suppression is triggered only when oncogenic Ras signal flux exceeds a critical threshold. Importantly, the failure of low-level oncogenic Kras to engage p53 reveals inherent limits in the capacity of p53 to restrain early tumour evolution and in the efficacy of therapeutic p53 restoration to eradicate cancers.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3011233/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3011233/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Junttila, Melissa R -- Karnezis, Anthony N -- Garcia, Daniel -- Madriles, Francesc -- Kortlever, Roderik M -- Rostker, Fanya -- Brown Swigart, Lamorna -- Pham, David M -- Seo, Youngho -- Evan, Gerard I -- Martins, Carla P -- CA100193/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA98018/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA100193/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA100193-09/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2010 Nov 25;468(7323):567-71. doi: 10.1038/nature09526.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉University of California San Francisco, Department of Pathology and Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California 94143-0502, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21107427" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/metabolism/*physiopathology ; Cell Proliferation ; Disease Models, Animal ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; Lung Neoplasms/metabolism/*physiopathology ; Mice ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)/metabolism ; Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics/*metabolism ; ras Proteins/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2008-08-22
    Description: Myc is a pleiotropic basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that coordinates expression of the diverse intracellular and extracellular programs that together are necessary for growth and expansion of somatic cells. In principle, this makes inhibition of Myc an attractive pharmacological approach for treating diverse types of cancer. However, enthusiasm has been muted by lack of direct evidence that Myc inhibition would be therapeutically efficacious, concerns that it would induce serious side effects by inhibiting proliferation of normal tissues, and practical difficulties in designing Myc inhibitory drugs. We have modelled genetically both the therapeutic impact and the side effects of systemic Myc inhibition in a preclinical mouse model of Ras-induced lung adenocarcinoma by reversible, systemic expression of a dominant-interfering Myc mutant. We show that Myc inhibition triggers rapid regression of incipient and established lung tumours, defining an unexpected role for endogenous Myc function in the maintenance of Ras-dependent tumours in vivo. Systemic Myc inhibition also exerts profound effects on normal regenerating tissues. However, these effects are well tolerated over extended periods and rapidly and completely reversible. Our data demonstrate the feasibility of targeting Myc, a common downstream conduit for many oncogenic signals, as an effective, efficient and tumour-specific cancer therapy.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4485609/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4485609/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Soucek, Laura -- Whitfield, Jonathan -- Martins, Carla P -- Finch, Andrew J -- Murphy, Daniel J -- Sodir, Nicole M -- Karnezis, Anthony N -- Swigart, Lamorna Brown -- Nasi, Sergio -- Evan, Gerard I -- 2R01 CA98018/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA098018/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA098018-05/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA098018-06/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA098018-07/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- T32 CA108462/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- T32 CA108462-01/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2008 Oct 2;455(7213):679-83. doi: 10.1038/nature07260. Epub 2008 Aug 17.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pathology and Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143-0875, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18716624" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenocarcinoma/genetics/metabolism/pathology/therapy ; Animals ; Gastrointestinal Tract/cytology/metabolism/pathology ; Genes, Dominant/genetics ; Genes, ras ; *Genetic Therapy ; Lung Neoplasms/genetics/metabolism/pathology/*therapy ; Male ; Mice ; *Models, Biological ; Mutation/genetics ; Oncogene Protein p21(ras)/metabolism ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc/*antagonists & inhibitors/*genetics/metabolism ; Skin/cytology/metabolism/pathology ; Testis/cytology/metabolism/pathology ; Transgenes/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2012-01-13
    Description: The Journal of Physical Chemistry B DOI: 10.1021/jp210493t
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-5207
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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