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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-06-08
    Description: Emerging evidence indicates that NADPH oxidase (NOX) and its reactive oxygen species (ROS) products modulate a variety of cellular events, including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the functions of NOX2 and ROS in immune modulation using NOX2 knockout (KO) mice. Interestingly, NOX2 KO mice spontaneously developed arthritis with onset at 6–7 wk of age and high incidence (60%) at 15–18 wk of age. Arthritis severity in NOX2 KO mice was proportionally increased with age and higher in females than in males. Bone destruction was confirmed by microcomputed tomography scanning and histological analyses of joints. Inflammatory factors, including TNF-α, IL-1β, and RANKL, and serum level of anti–type II collagen IgG were significantly increased in NOX2 KO mice. In addition, NOX2 deficiency perturbed the immune system upon aging. NOX2 KO mice demonstrated preferred development of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells with profound production of proinflammatory cytokines and augmented expression of IL-17 through the activation of STAT3 and RORγt in vivo. NOX2 deficiency increased differentiation of effector Th cells in vitro and decreased CD25+FoxP3+ Treg cells both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of NOX2-deficient CD4+ T cells into RAG KO mice increased arthritic inflammation compared with WT cells. These results demonstrated that NOX2 deficiency affected the development of CD11b+ myeloid cells and Th17/Treg cells, and thus promoted inflammatory cytokine production and inflammatory arthritis development, strongly supporting a crucial role for ROS generation in the modulation of Th17/Treg cell development and its related inflammatory immune response upon aging.
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-02-22
    Description: Retrospective clinical studies have used immune-based biomarkers, alone or in combination, to predict survival outcomes for women with breast cancer (BC); however, the limitations inherent to immunohistochemical analyses prevent comprehensive descriptions of leukocytic infiltrates, as well as evaluation of the functional state of leukocytes in BC stroma. To more fully evaluate this complexity, and to gain insight into immune responses after chemotherapy (CTX), we prospectively evaluated tumor and nonadjacent normal breast tissue from women with BC, who either had or had not received neoadjuvant CTX before surgery. Tissues were evaluated by polychromatic flow cytometry in combination with confocal immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical analysis of tissue sections. These studies revealed that activated T lymphocytes predominate in tumor tissue, whereas myeloid lineage cells are more prominant in “normal” breast tissue. Notably, residual tumors from an unselected group of BC patients treated with neoadjuvant CTX contained increased percentages of infiltrating myeloid cells, accompanied by an increased CD8/CD4 T-cell ratio and higher numbers of granzyme B-expressing cells, compared with tumors removed from patients treated primarily by surgery alone. These data provide an initial evaluation of differences in the immune microenvironment of BC compared with nonadjacent normal tissue and reveal the degree to which CTX may alter the complexity and presence of selective subsets of immune cells in tumors previously treated in the neoadjuvant setting.
    Keywords: Breast Cancer Special Feature
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-10-26
    Description: The transcription factor T-bet (Tbox protein expressed in T cells) is one of the master regulators of both the innate and adaptive immune responses. It plays a central role in T-cell lineage commitment, where it controls the TH1 response, and in gene regulation in plasma B-cells and dendritic cells. T-bet...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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