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  • Articles  (339)
  • Life and Medical Sciences  (339)
  • 1980-1984  (300)
  • 1940-1944  (39)
  • 1
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Intermediate subviral particles (ISVP) derived from reovirus represent a simple model system for the switch-on of transcriptase function. In such particles the endogenous transcriptase is present in a switched-off form, one step removed from the switched-on state. Switch-on of transcriptase function is an active process in this system and can be triggered by K+ ions. A variety of agents which affect gene expression in cells were tested for an effect on switch-on in ISVP. Marked effects on switch-on in ISVP were observed with a diverse group of test agents, including DMSO and other solvents, BUdR, TdR, caffeine, theophylline, and temperature. The correlation in response between ISVP and cells suggests that the ISVP system may be useful as a model for studying the biochemical mechanisms underlying the perturbative effects of such agents on gene expression in cells.
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  • 2
  • 3
    ISSN: 0148-7280
    Keywords: spermatozoa ; flow cytometry ; DNA staining ; nuclear morphology ; ultrastructure ; mammals ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The morphological and ultrastructural changes that occur during preparation of porcine, bovine, and murine spermatozoa for flow cytometric quantification of the relative DNA content of the X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm populations were examined. Ejaculated spermatozoa from the boar and bull were washed using a series of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solutions prior to fixation, whereas the epididymal mouse spermatozoa were washed only in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Spermatozoa from all three species were then fixed in ethanol and processed for fluorochrome staining by a treatment regimen consisting of sulfhydryl reduction and proteolysis. The processed sperm nuclei were stained for DNA with the fluorochrome, 4′-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) before quantification by flow cytometry. Scanning and transmission electron micrographs of sperm heads taken at various steps of the preparation and staining procedures show 1) that the rigorous washing procedure disrupted the plasma and outer acrosomal membranes, 2) that ethanol fixation resulted in removal of the outer membranes and disintegration of the nuclear envelope, and 3) that thiol and proteolysis treatment removed the remaining cellular organelles including the tail and rapidly induced partial decondensation of the tightly packed chromatin. Sequential micrographs showed that the nuclear matrix of all three species increased in thickness about twofold during the preparation and staining. Consequently, the harsh procedures currently used for quantitative staining of DNA for high-resolution flow cytometric analyses destroy most cellular organelles and thereby prevent simultaneous characterization of DNA content and other sperm cell constituents.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Gamete Research 4 (1981), S. 203-217 
    ISSN: 0148-7280
    Keywords: α-chlorohydrin ; antifertility agent ; ram ; sperm metabolism ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The effects of the male antifertility agent, α-chlorohydrin, six of its derivatives, and glycidol were studied on the metabolism of washed ram spermatozoa in vitro with fructose as substrate. The α-chlorohydrin derivatives were the amino, the phosphorylated, and four glycol-bridge (ketal) compounds. All compounds except glycidol, in a concentration between 0.1 and 100 mM, reduced the aerobic glycolsis and/or oxidation of fructose. However, there was not a high correlation between the ability of these compounds to inhibit the metabolism of ram spermatozoa in vitro and their antifertility activity when administered to male rats. Other factors are clearly involved in their antifertility activity, eg, the concentration of the compounds in the epididymis and their conversion of either more or less spermicidal compounds in the body.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0095-9898
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0741-0581
    Keywords: Electron microscopy ; Ion microscopy ; Correlative microscopy ; Electron probe microanalysis ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Notes: In order to correctly interpret the chemical images obtained using ion microscopy (IM), it is useful to correlate them with the information provided by conventional light microscopy (LM), secondary electron imaging (SEI), backscattered electron imaging (BEI), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Accordingly, we have devised a technique of specimen preparation which allows for the application of several different microanalytical techniques to a single histologic section mounted on the same substrate. Sections are cut onto polyester plastic coverslips (devoid of peaks for any element with atomic number 〉 9 using EPMA) and studied by LM. After a light rotary coating with carbon (to prevent charging), the section can then be examined by SEI, BEI, and EPMA. Specific areas can be marked for IM study either with an objective-mounted pin tissue microlocater, or by placing small pieces of metal foil, cut in specific geometric shapes, over features of interest. After sputter-coating the sample with platinum, metal-free shadows are visible using a low-power reflected light microscope available on a typical IM sample chamber as a guide for ion beam placement. The conductive coatings also minimize specimen charging during IM. Post-IM light microscopy, SEI, and BEI are used to confirm the location of specific areas probed in the IM experiments and to provide information on differential ion-sputtering artifacts and tissue contaminants. This new correlative technique should permit better understanding of the images obtained with these diverse instruments.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We have isolated continuously growing cell lines derived from mouse bone marrow stroma. These cell lines were independently obtained, and though they showed morphologies ranging from the epithelioid to the fibroblastoid patterns, they all differentiated into adipocytes. Subclones obtained from two cell lines had a very high frequency (90-100%) of differentiation into adipocytes after two or three weeks of arrested growth. Though extensive accumulation of lipid often mechanically impaired mitosis, the cells committed to adipocytes did not suffer an irreversible loss of proliferative capacity. Adipogenesis was obtained in conditions similar to those required for fat cell formation in long-term bone marrow culture. The cell lines were found to be insensitive to insulin as a signal of adipocyte differentiation. The ultrastructural characteristics of the preadipocytes and fat cells are also similar to those of the fat cells developing in long-term bone marrow culture. As such, these cell lines should prove useful for analysing cell/cell interactions in haemopoiesis.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Actively growing mouse or rat embryo cells suffered structural chromosome damage, mitotic anomalies, and polyploidy after infection by human adenovirus type 5. Chromosome damage required expression of one or more early viral genes and showed regular periodicity in its frequency. The growth cycle time of some of the infected cells was reduced by about 5 hours due to a decrease in G1, and the interval between successive waves of chromosome damage corresponded to this reduced cycle time. After infection there was a decrease in cells with G1 DNA content and an increase in cells with G2 diploid, aneuploid, and polyploid DNA contents. We suggest these effects are due to the expression in semipermissive cells of early viral gene(s), whose function in productive infection in vivo is to alter cell cycle controls in order to maximize the number of cells able to replicate viral DNA and the time such cells spend in DNA replication.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The possibilities that the growth-promoting effect of the extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by cultured bovine corneal endothelial (BCE) cells could be due to: (1) adsorbed cellular factors released during the cell lysis process leading to the denudation of the ECM; (2) adsorbed serum or plasma factors: or (3) adsorbed exogenous growth factors have been examined. Exposure of confluent BCE cultures to 2 M urea in medium supplemented with 0.5% calf serum denudes the ECM without cell lysis. The ECM prepared by this procedure supports cell growth just as well as ECM prepared by denudation involving cell lysis. Thus, it is unlikely that the growth-promoting properties of ECM are due to adsorbed cellular factors. When the ECM produced by BCE cells grown in defined medium supplemented with high-density lipoprotein, transferrin, and insulin was compared to the ECMs produced by cells grown in the presence of serum- or plasma-supplemented medium, all were found to be equally potent in stimulating cell growth. It is therefore unlikely that the growth-promoting ability of the ECM is due to adsorbed plasma or serum components. When fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-coated and ECM-coated plastic dishes were submitted to a heat treatment (70°C, 30 min) which results in the inactivation of FGF, the growth-supporting ability of FGF-coated dishes was lost, while the comparable ability of ECM-coated dishes was not affected significantly. This observation tends to demonstrate that the active factor present in the ECM is not FGF. Nor is it platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), since treatment known to destroy the activity of PDGF, such as exposure to dithiothreitol (0.1 M, 30 min, 22°C) or to β-mercaptoethanol (10%) in the presence or absence of 6 M urea for 30 min at 227°C, does not affect the growth-promoting activity of ECM. It is therefore unlikely that the growth-promoting effect of ECM is due to cellular growth-promoting agents or to plasma or serum factors adsorbed onto the ECM.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In culture, B16/C3 murine melanoma cells grown in the presence of serum undergo melanogenesis at a specific time after plating. At this time, melanin is synthesized intracellularly and then secreted into the extracellular culture fluid. We have found that melanin secretion is dependent on the presence of serum in the growth medium. When confluent cultures are deprived of serum, that is, refed with serum-free medium, cells remain viable but do not undergo melanogenesis. Addition of serum-free medium supplemented with either melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) or dibutyryl cAMP induced melanogenesis in these cells but did not result in melanin secretion. Furthermore, when B16/C3 cells are grown in serum-free, hormone-supplemented medium, they also undergo melanogenesis but fail to release melanin. The addition of serum, however, to B16/C3 cells induced to undergo melanogenesis with MSH, dibutyryl cAMP, or hormone-supplemented medium promotes melanin secretion. Fractionation studies hence revealed that serum contains specific factors capable of inducing melanin secretion. These results demonstrate that factors that regulate melanin synthesis are distinct from those that induce cells to release melanin into their extracellular environment. Furthermore, the ability to induce melanogenesis with single factors will permit us to study the precise sequence of events leading to differentiation in B16/C3 cells under chemically defined conditions.
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