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  • Articles  (38)
  • 1995-1999  (38)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 0016-7835
    Keywords: Key words Ontong Java Plateau ; Thorium-230 ; Barium ; Productivity ; Lysocline ; Sediment focusing ; Vertical mass accumulation rate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  We discuss geochemical proxies, reflecting processes of primary productivity, CaCO3 dissolution, and sediment redistribution in a piston core (RNDB 74P) from the Ontong Java Plateau. Due to the shallow water depth, biogenic carbonate is well preserved and a very good δ18O stratigraphy is available down to isotopic stage 11. 230Thex gives evidence that the sediment accumulation pattern is driven mainly by processes of sediment focusing or winnowing. Due to the constant production of 230Th in the water column, the bulk sediment accumulation rates could be corrected for the particle rain deriving from the water column above. The 230Thex 0/CaCO3 ratio reflects the well-known Pacific CaCO3 preservation pattern with ice growth dissolution spikes and deglacial preservation spikes. The record of the grain size fraction 〉63 μm supports these results. The downcore concentrations and accumulation rates of barium (Ba) are on a higher level during interglacials and show several peaks. Normalization of Ba with 230Thex 0 delivers a more uniform level of the Ba accumulation rates throughout the core. This pattern suggests a constantly higher biological productivity (nearly tenfold) in this area throughout the past 200 kyr compared with an open ocean environment. Barium peaks observed at the climatic transitions 2/1 and 6/5 and in stage 5 are in contrast to a predicted reduction of interglacial productivity at this location. A possible explanation might be the onset of the modern circulation pattern. The transition from Ba-enriched deep water to lower contents in the Atlantic might have resulted in an enhanced deposition of Ba in the Pacific.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0016-7835
    Keywords: Key words Ferromanganese crusts ; Phosphatization ; Paleoceanographic events ; NE Atlantic ; Mediterranean outflow water ; Messinian salinity crisis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  Hydrogenetic ferromanganese crusts reflect the chemical conditions of the seawater from which they formed. Fine-scale geochemical analysis of crust layers in combination with age determinations can therefore be used to investigate paleoceanographic changes which are recorded in geochemical gradients in the crusts. At Tropic seamount (off northwest Africa), uniform crust growth influenced by terrigenous input from the African continent occurred during approximately the past 12 Ma. Phosphatization of these crusts is minor. In contrast, crusts from Lion seamount, located between Madeira and the Portuguese coast, display a much more variable growth history. A pronounced increase in Ni, Cu, and Zn is observed in some intervals of the crusts, which probably reflects increased surface productivity. A thick older phosphatized generation occurs in many samples. Hydrographic profiles indicate that Mediterranean outflow water (MOW) may play an important role in the composition of these crusts. 10Be dating of one sample confirms that the interruption of the MOW during the Messinian salinity crisis (6.2–5 Ma ago) resulted in changes in element composition. Sr-isotope dating of the apatite phase of the old crust generation has been carried out to obtain a minimum age for the older generation of Atlantic crusts and to determine whether crust phosphatization in the Atlantic can be related to phosphatization episodes recorded in Pacific crusts. The preliminary data show that the old phosphatized crust generation might be as old as approximately 30–40 Ma.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0016-7835
    Keywords: Key words High-resolution dating ; 230Thex constant flux models ; Sediment focusing ; Sediment winnowing ; Particle flux reconstruction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  High-resolution records of the natural radionuclide 230Th were measured in sediments from the eastern Atlantic sector of the Antarctic circumpolar current to obtain a detailed reconstruction of the sedimentation history of this key area for global climate change during the late Quaternary. High-resolution dating rests on the assumption that the 230Thex flux to the sediments is constant. Short periods of drastically increased sediment accumulation rates (up to a factor of 8) were determined in the sediments of the Antarctic zone during the climate optima at the beginning of the Holocene and the isotope stage 5e. By comparing expected and measured accumulation rate of 230Thex, lateral sediment redistribution was quantified and vertical particle rain rates originating from the surface water above were calculated. We show that lateral contributions locally were up to 6.5 times higher than the vertical particle rain rates. At other locations only 15% of the expected vertical particle rain rate were deposited.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0016-7835
    Keywords: Key words Manganese nodules ; Thorium dating ; Uranium isotopes ; Peru basin ; TIMS
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  Thorium- and uranium isotopes were measured in a diagenetic manganese nodule from the Peru basin applying alpha- and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Alpha-counting of 62 samples was carried out with a depth resolution of 0.4 mm to gain a high-resolution 230Thexcess profile. In addition, 17 samples were measured with TIMS to obtain precise isotope concentrations and isotope ratios. We got values of 0.06–0.59 ppb (230Th), 0.43-1.40 ppm (232Th), 0.09–0.49 ppb (234U) and 1.66–8.24 ppm (238U). The uranium activity ratio in the uppermost samples (1–6 mm) and in two further sections in the nodule at 12.5±1.0 mm and 27.3–33.5 mm comes close to the present ocean water value of 1.144±0.004. In two other sections of the nodule, this ratio is significantly higher, probably reflecting incorporation of diagenetic uranium. The upper 25 mm section of the Mn nodule shows a relatively smooth exponential decrease in the 230Thexcess concentration (TIMS). The slope of the best fit yields a growth rate of 110 mm/Ma up to 24.5 mm depth. The section from 25 to 30.3 mm depth shows constant 230Thexcess concentrations probably due to growth rates even faster than those in the top section of the nodule. From 33 to 50 mm depth, the growth rate is approximately 60 mm/Ma. Two layers in the nodule with distinct laminations (11–15 and 28–33 mm depth) probably formed during the transition from isotopic stage 8 to 7 and in stage 5e, respectively. The Mn/Fe ratio shows higher values during interglacials 5 and 7, and lower ones during glacials 4 and 6. A comparison of our data with data from adjacent sediment cores suggests (a) a variable supply of hydrothermal Mn to sediments and Mn nodules of the Peru basin or (b) suboxic conditions at the water sediment interface during periods with lower Mn/Fe ratios.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Keywords: Ontong Java Plateau ; Thorium-230 ; Barium ; Productivity ; Lysocline ; Sediment focusing ; Vertical mass accumulation rate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract We discuss geochemical proxies, reflecting processes of primary productivity, CaCO3 dissolution, and sediment redistribution in a piston core (RNDB 74P) from the Ontong Java Plateau. Due to the shallow water depth, biogenic carbonate is well preserved and a very goodδ 18O stratigraphy is available down to isotopic stage 11.230Thex gives evidence that the sediment accumulation pattern is driven mainly by processes of sediment focusing or winnowing. Due to the constant production of230Th in the water column, the bulk sediment accumulation rates could be corrected for the particle rain deriving from the water column above. The230Thex 0/CaCO3 ratio reflects the well-known Pacific CaCO3 preservation pattern with ice growth dissolution spikes and deglacial preservation spikes. The record of the grain size fraction 〉63 µm supports these results. The downcore concentrations and accumulation rates of barium (Ba) are on a higher level during interglacials and show several peaks. Normalization of Ba with230Thex 0 delivers a more uniform level of the Ba accumulation rates throughout the core. This pattern suggests a constantly higher biological productivity (nearly tenfold) in this area throughout the past 200 kyr compared with an open ocean environment. Barium peaks observed at the climatic transitions 2/1 and 6/5 and in stage 5 are in contrast to a predicted reduction of interglacial productivity at this location. A possible explanation might be the onset of the modern circulation pattern. The transition from Ba-enriched deep water to lower contents in the Atlantic might have resulted in an enhanced deposition of Ba in the Pacific.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Keywords: High-resolution dating ; 230Thex constant flux models ; Sediment focusing ; Sediment winnowing ; Particle flux reconstruction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract High-resolution records of the natural radionuclide230Th were measured in sediments from the eastern Atlantic sector of the Antarctic circumpolar current to obtain a detailed reconstruction of the sedimentation history of this key area for global climate change during the late Quaternary. High-resolution dating rests on the assumption that the230Thex flux to the sediments is constant. Short periods of drastically increased sediment accumulation rates (up to a factor of 8) were determined in the sediments of the Antarctic zone during the climate optima at the beginning of the Holocene and the isotope stage 5e. By comparing expected and measured accumulation rate of230Thex, lateral sediment redistribution was quantified and vertical particle rain rates originating from the surface water above were calculated. We show that lateral contributions locally were up to 6.5 times higher than the vertical particle rain rates. At other locations only 15% of the expected vertical particle rain rate were deposited.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Keywords: Ferromanganese crusts ; Phosphatization ; Paleoceanographic events ; NE Atlantic ; Mediterranean outflow water ; Messinian salinity crisis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Hydrogenetic ferromanganese crusts reflect the chemical conditions of the sewater from which they formed. Fine-scale geochemical analysis of crust layers in combination with age determinations can therefore be used to investigate paleoceanographic changes which are recorded in geochemical gradients in the crusts. At Tropic seamount (off northwest Africa), uniform crust growth influenced by terrigenous input from the African continent occurred during approximately the past 12 Ma. Phosphatization of these crusts is minor. In contrast, crusts from Lion seamount, located between Madeira and the Portuguese coast, display a much more variable growth history. A pronounced increase in Ni, Cu, and Zn is observed in some intervals of the crusts, which probably reflects increased surface productivity. A thick older phosphatized generation occurs in many samples. Hydrographic profiles indicate that Mediterranean outflow water (MOW) may play an important role in the composition of these crusts.10Be dating of one sample confirms that the interruption of the MOW during the Messinian salinity crisis (6.2–5 Ma ago) resulted in changes in element composition. Sr-isotope dating of the apatite phase of the old crust generation has been carried out to obtain a minimum age for the older generation of Atlantic crusts and to determine whether crust phosphatization in the Atlantic can be related to phosphatization episodes recorded in Pacific crusts. The preliminary data show that the old phosphatized crust generation might be as old as approximately 30–40 Ma.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Keywords: Manganese nodules ; Thorium dating ; Uranium isotopes ; Peru basin ; TIMS
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Thorium- and uranium isotopes were measured in a diagenetic manganese nodule from the Peru basin applying alpha- and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Alpha-counting of 62 samples was carried out with a depth resolution of 0.4 mm to gain a high-resolution230Thexcess profile. In addition, 17 samples were measured with TIMS to obtain precise isotope concentrations and isotope ratios. We got values of 0.06–0.59 ppb (230Th), 0.43–1.40 ppm (232Th), 0.09–0.49 ppb (234U) and 1.66–8.24 ppm (238U). The uranium activity ratio in the uppermost samples (1–6 mm) and in two further sections in the nodule at 12.5±1.0 mm and 27.3–33.5 mm comes close to the present ocean water value of 1.144±0.004. In two other sections of the nodule, this ratio is significantly higher, probably reflecting incorporation of diagenetic uranium. The upper 25 mm section of the Mn nodule shows a relatively smooth exponential decrease in the230Thexcess concentration (TIMS). The slope of the best fit yields a growth rate of 110 mm/Ma up to 24.5 mm depth. The section from 25 to 30.3 mm depth shows constant230Thexcess concentrations probably due to growth rates even faster than those in the top section of the nodule. From 33 to 50 mm depth, the growth rate is approximately 60 mm/Ma. Two layers in the nodule with distinct laminations (11–15 and 28–33 mm depth) probably formed during the transition from isotopic stage 8 to 7 and in stage 5e, respectively. The Mn/Fe ratio shows higher values during interglacials 5 and 7, and lower ones during glacials 4 and 6. A comparison of our data with data from adjacent sediment cores suggests (a) a variable supply of hydrothermal Mn to sediments and Mn nodules of the Peru basin or (b) suboxic conditions at the water sediment interface during periods with lower Mn/Fe ratios.
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-08-10
    Description: Variations of intensity and composition of biogenic particle flux at the northern boundary of the present PolarFrontal Zone in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean are indicators of major changes of paleoenvironmentalconditions on glacial/interglacial time scales during the Late Quaternary. In order to estimate those pastchanges, sediment accumulation patterns of two piston cores, one from just north and one just south of thepresent day position of the Subantarctic Front were reconstructed. Using the 230Thex method large contributionsof laterally supplied material were quantified and used to correct sediment accumulation rates. During the lastglacial focussing of biogenic opal-dominated material exceeded the original contribution from the surfacewater above by a maximum factor of 8.7. The initial activity ratio of 231Paex/230Thex was used as tracer forbiogenic particle flux and composition and indicates that during the glacial stages 2 and 4 the area of high opalproductivity was situated above the location of the southern core whereas the northern core has not beenreached by this northward shift during the last 130 kyr as shown by the pattern of focussing-corrected bulkaccumulation rates. If the position of the Antarctic Polar Front has remained at the northern boundary of thehigh opal productivity area during the last 130 kyr, the results suggest that was located exactly between thetwo core sites during glacial stages 2 and 4. A two-box modeling approach involving particle flux and boundaryscavenging intensity of 231Pa was applied to estimate the possible range of the 231Paex/230Thex ratio recordedin Southern Ocean sediments. Previous estimates on the export of 231Pa from the Atlantic into the SouthernOcean are corroborated but the model suggests a low sensitivity of the 231Paex/230Thex ratio in Southern Oceansediments to variations of the residence time of North Atlantic Deep Water in the Atlantic Ocean.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
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