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  • MACHINE ELEMENTS AND PROCESSES  (2)
  • physical habitat  (2)
  • Aerospace Medicine  (1)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Manufacturing engineering research at Marshall Space Flight Center
    Keywords: MACHINE ELEMENTS AND PROCESSES
    Type: RES. ACHIEVEMENTS REV., VOL. 2 1968 (SEE N69-18059 07-34)
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: index of biotic integrity ; stream ; fish ; erosion ; sediment ; physical habitat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Indices of biotic integrity (1131) were computed for two annual fish collections from 27 locations along the bluffline bordering the Mississippi River alluvial plain in northwestern Mississippi. Study sites exhibited varying degrees of physical habitat degradation due to accelerated channel erosion. Objectives of index application were to quantify existing environmental quality and to test the IBI as a tool for relating fish population characteristics to physical degradation. Physical habitat data were collected concurrently with fish at all sites, and physical habitat descriptors were compared with the IBI scores and component metrics. Three to 23 fish species were captured from each site, and species richness explained 64–70% of the variance in IBI scores. Fish collections were dominated by insectivores tolerant of habitat and water quality degradation. Suckers and piscivores were relatively uncommon. The IBI scores were generally not reflective of physical habitat conditions. Variation in IBI scores was indicative of only the grossest differences in physical habitat quality. Weak relationships between physical habitat quality and IBI scores may have been due to large temporal variations in biotic integrity typical of degraded habitats. Alternatively, water quality degradation, which we did not measure, may have confounded relationships between physical habitat and fish metrics. Regional application of the IBI as a habitat assessment tool in landscapes with widespread physical degradation must overcome lack of suitable reference sites, large temporal variation in IBI scores, and small numbers of fish per collection, leading to lower confidence levels for IBI scores. The scarcity of lightly impacted sites may hinder detection of biotic integrity response along gradients of physical habitat quality.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: stream restoration ; fish ; erosion ; sediment ; physical habitat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Channel incision has major impacts on stream corridor ecosystems, leading to reduced spatial habitat heterogeneity, greater temporal instability, less stream-floodplain interaction, and shifts in fish community structure. Most literature dealing with channel incision examines physical processes and erosion control. A study of incised warmwater stream rehabilitation was conducted to develop and demonstrate techniques that would be economically feasible for integration with more orthodox, extensively employed watershed stabilization techniques (e.g., structural bank protection, grade control structures, small reservoirs, and land treatment). One-km reaches of each of five northwest Mississippi streams with contributing drainage areas between 16 and 205 km2 were selected for a 5-year study. During the study two reaches were modified by adding woody vegetation and stone structure to rehabilitate habitats degraded by erosion and channelization. The other three reaches provided reference data, as two of them were degraded but not rehabilitated, and the third was only lightly degraded. Rehabilitation approaches were guided by conceptual models of incised channel evolution and fish community structure in small warmwater streams. These models indicated that rehabilitation efforts should focus on aggradational reaches in the downstream portions of incising watersheds, and that ecological status could be improved by inducing formation and maintenance of stable pool habitats. Fish and physical habitat attributes were sampled from each stream during the Spring and Fall for 5 years, and thalweg and cross-section surveys were performed twice during the same period. Rehabilitation increased pool habitat availability, and made the treated sites physically more similar to the lightly degraded reference site. Fish communities generally responded as suggested by the aforementioned conceptual model of fish community structure. Species composition shifted away from small colonists (principally cyprinids and small centrarchids) toward larger centrarchids, catostomids, and ictalurids. Fish density and species richness increased at one rehabilitated site but remained stable at the other, suggesting that the sites occupied different initial states and endpoints within the conceptual model, and differed in their accessibility to sources of colonizing organisms. These experiments suggest that major gains in stream ecosystem rehabilitation can be made through relatively modest but well-designed efforts to modify degraded physical habitats.
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-06-27
    Description: Packaging and preservation of space vehicle hardware
    Keywords: MACHINE ELEMENTS AND PROCESSES
    Type: NASA-CR-87419
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: INTRODUCTION Sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of line of duty death among firefighters, accounting for approximately 45% of fatalities annually. Firefighters perform strenuous muscular work while wearing heavy, encapsulating personal protective equipment in high ambient temperatures, under chaotic and emotionally stressful conditions. These factors can precipitate sudden cardiac events like myocardial infarction, serious dysrhythmias, or cerebrovascular accidents in firefighters with underlying cardiovascular disease. Screening for cardiovascular risk factors is recommended but not always followed in this population. PHASER is a project charged with identifying and prioritizing risk factors in emergency responders. We have deployed an advanced ECG (A-ECG) system developed at NASA for improved sensitivity and specificity in the detection of cardiac risk. METHODS Forty-four professional firefighters were recruited to perform comprehensive baseline assessments including tests of aerobic performance and laboratory tests for fasting lipid profiles and glucose. Heart rate and conventional 12-lead ECG were obtained at rest and during incremental treadmill exercise testing (XT). In addition, a 5-min resting 12-lead A-ECG was obtained in a subset of firefighters (n=18) and transmitted over a secure networked system to a physician collaborator at NASA for advanced-ECG analysis. This A-ECG system has been proven, using myocardial perfusion and other imaging, to accurately identify a number of cardiac pathologies including coronary artery disease (CAD), left ventricular hypertrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, and ischemic cardiomyopathy. RESULTS Subjects mean (SD) age was 43 (8) years, weight 91 (13) kg, and BMI of 28 (3) kg/square meter. Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) was 39 (9) ml/kg/min. This compares with the 45th %ile in healthy reference values and a recommended standard of 42 ml/kg/min for firefighters. The metabolic threshold (VO2Theta) above which lactate accumulates was 23 (8) ml/kg/min. The chronotropic index, a measure of cardiovascular strain during XT was 35 (8) /L compared with reference values for men of 40 /L. Total cholesterol, LDL-C and HDL-C were 202 (34),126 (29), and 55 (15) mg/dl, respectively. Fifty-one percent of subjects had .3 cardiovascular risk factors, 2 subjects had resting hypertension (BP.140/90), and 23 had pre-hypertension (.120/80 but 〈140/90). Seven had exaggerated exercise induced hypertension but only one had ST depression on XT ECG, at least one positive A-ECG score for CAD, and documented CAD based on cardiology referral. While all other subjects, including those with fewer risk factors, higher aerobic fitness, and normal exercise ECGs, were classified as healthy by A-ECG, there was no trend for association between risk factors and any of 20 A-ECG parameters in the grouped data. CONCLUSIONS A-ECG screening correctly identified the individual with CAD although there was no trend for A-ECG parameters to distinguish those with elevated BP or multiple risk factors but normal XT ECG. We have demonstrated that a new technology, advanced-ECG, can be introduced for remote firefighter risk assessment. This simple, time and cost-effective approach to risk identification that can be acquired remotely and transmitted securely can detect individuals potentially at risk for line-of-duty death. Additional research is needed to further document its value.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: JSC-CN-24585 , UCLA''s Department of Medicine Research Conference; 20 Sep. 2011; Los Angeles, CA; United States
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