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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Trichogramma ; Hymenoptera ; Trichogrammatidae ; kairomone ; Heliothis zea ; biological control ; pest management ; parasitoids
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract A kairomone from adultHeliothis zea (Boddie) scales is an important factor in the host selection process ofTrichogrammapretiosum Riley. If the host density is sufficiently high (i.e., 1 egg/500 cm2) and higher), a complete coverage or solid treatment of kairomone spray may be the optimum for increasing parasitization rates, but this is not the case at lower host densities (e.g., 1 egg/2000 cm2). At the lower densities, the kairomone must be distributed in such a way as to retain the parasitoids in the target area without inhibiting their movement from one ovi-position site to the next. Simulated moth scale particles appear to fill this need since their density can be regulated to provide the optimum frequency of parasitoid stimulation and thus maximum rates of parasitization at prevailing host densities.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Trichogramma achaeae ; Heliothis zea ; biological control ; kairomones ; pest management ; parasitoids ; host finding ; insect behavior ; pheromones ; behavior chemicals
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract When the effect of the kairomone, tricosane, on parasitization byTrichogramma achaeae Nagaraja and Nagarkatti of eggs ofHeliothis zea (Boddie) was studied in petri dish tests, the greatest percentage parasitization ( $$\mathop X\limits^\_$$ = 64%) was obtained if the entire filter paper was treated. Treatment of smaller areas (about the eggs) resulted in decreased parasitism. In the greenhouse, highest parasitization ( $$\mathop X\limits^\_$$ = 71%) byT. pretiosum (Riley) ofH. zea eggs placed on pea seedlings grown in pie pans was obtained if the whole pan was treated; lowest parasitism ( $$\mathop X\limits^\_$$ = 29%) occurred when the pans were untreated. Parasitization was intermediate ( $$\mathop X\limits^\_$$ = 52%) in other pans treated only at selected spots. Dissections ofH. zea eggs collected from kairomonetreated and untreated field plots revealed that eggs ofTrichogramma spp. were more efficiently distributed (less superparasitism) among host eggs in treated plots. These kairomones increase parasitization ofTrichogramma spp. by releasing and continuously reinforcing an intensified searching behavior rather than by attracting and guiding the parasite directly to the host.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: kairomones ; Trichogramma achaeae ; Trichogramma pretiosum ; Microplitis croceipes ; Heliothis Spp. ; host-seeking stimuli ; insect behavior ; releasers ; pest management ; biological control
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Frass from larvae of the corn earworm,Heliothis zea (Boddie) and scales fromH. zea moths (that are known to contain the host-seeking stimulus, tricosane) stimulate and orient host-seeking activity in femaleMicroplitis croceipes (Cresson), a larval parasite ofH. zea, andTrichogramma spp., egg parasites ofH. zea. When larval frass, moth scales, and tricosane were used as sign stimuli (releasers) forM. croceipes, T. pretiosum (Riley), andT. achaeae Nagaraji and Nagarkatti, respectively, at time of their release from laboratory containers, parasite performance improved, resulting in significantly increased rates of parasitization over that of unstimulated parasites. Stimulation ofM. croceipes with larval frass had an overriding effect on this parasite's innate tendency to disperse upon release, thereby increasing the numbers remaining and prolonging their retention in the target area. Supplying the appropriate host-seeking stimuli to these 3 hymenopterous parasites ofH. zea at time of their release to improve their efficiency greatly increases the probability of their effective utilization in pest management systems.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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