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  • panel data  (25)
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  • 1
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    Göttingen: University of Göttingen, Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research (cege)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-20
    Description: In this study, MERCOSUR's past exports to the EU under the protectionist environment of the period between 1988 and 1996 are examined and an attempt is made to determine MERCOSUR's exports' growth potential in a liberalised EU market. A sectoral study is considered indispensable since tariff and non-tariff trade barriers vary strongly among sectors. The influence of the macroeconomic environment on MERCOSUR's exports is examined in a dynamic panel analysis. A simulation study based on a quite comprehensive evaluation of EU trade barriers is performed for the Argentinean case in order to evaluate the impact of EU trade liberalisation.
    Keywords: F14 ; F13 ; C23 ; ddc:330 ; MERCOSUR-EU trade ; trade barriers ; sectoral study ; panel data ; Export ; Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen ; Protektionismus ; Aussenhandelsliberalisierung ; Aussenhandelsstruktur ; Schätzung ; MERCOSUR-Staaten ; EU-Staaten
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper analyzes the impact of urbanization on CO2 emissions in developing countries, taking into account the presence of heterogeneity in the sample of countries and testing for the stability of the estimated elasticities over time. The sample covers the period from 1975 through 2003 for different groups of countries, classified according to their income levels. Our results show that, whereas the impact of population growth on emissions is above unity and only slightly different for upper, middle, and low- income countries, urbanization, demonstrate a very different impact on emissions for low and lower-middle-income countries and upper-middle income countries.
    Keywords: Q25 ; Q4 ; Q54 ; ddc:330 ; CO2 emissions ; developing countries ; panel data ; population growth ; urbanization ; Kohlendioxid ; Luftverunreinigung ; Bevölkerungswachstum ; Urbanisierung ; Entwicklungsländer
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Göttingen: University of Göttingen, Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research (cege)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-20
    Description: This paper examines the involvement of the CEECs into regional and global production networks over the period 1999 to 2009. We employ a theoretically justified gravity model which incorporates the extensive margin of trade and accounts for firm heterogeneity. We first estimate the model for highly disaggregated exports (SITC 5-digits) in final goods, and then augment it by including the corresponding imported intermediate products from the OECD together with the usual control variables. Next, we estimate the model for each trade margin (extensive and intensive) separately to evaluate the effects of economic integration on exports and imports of each category of goods. Our results indicate that the CEECs have indeed become more integrated into regional production networks and this has had a positive impact in terms of increasing trade volumes and trade varieties between the two parts of the European continent.
    Keywords: F10 ; F14 ; D31 ; ddc:330 ; exports ; gravity equation ; panel data ; production networks ; economic integration ; trade flows ; Export ; Internationale Arbeitsteilung ; Produktionsorganisation ; Unternehmensnetzwerk ; Internationale Arbeitsteilung ; Gravitationsmodell ; Ostmitteleuropa ; Wirtschaftsintegration ; EU-Staaten
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Göttingen: University of Göttingen, Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research (cege)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-20
    Description: This paper investigates the link between exporting and importing activities and firm performance using a rich dataset on Egyptian and Moroccan firms. We test the export premium, self-selection and learning-by-exporting hypotheses using a number of firm characteristics. Our analysis also includes importing activities as a source of learning and considers their effects on productivity changes. A differences-in-differences matching estimator is used to address the endogeneity bias of target variables. The main results for Egyptian firms echo those reported for other countries using firm-level data, namely exporters are larger and more productive than non-exporters. In contrast, Moroccan exporters and non-exporters are strikingly similar. More specifically, no evidence is found of pre or post-entry differences in labour productivity for Moroccan firms.
    Keywords: F10 ; F35 ; ddc:330 ; firms ; new-new trade theory ; productivity ; exporting ; panel data ; Egypt ; Morocco ; Exportindustrie ; Produktivität ; Unternehmen ; Schätzung ; Ägypten ; Marokko
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    Göttingen: University of Göttingen, Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research (cege)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-20
    Description: This paper investigates whether Aid for Trade (AfT) improves export performance, i.e. does AfT lead to greater exports? Using panel data and panel quantile regression, our results suggest that overall AfT disbursements promote the export of goods and services mainly for the .50 and .75 quantiles. Our results also show that for some types of AfT this effect essentially vanishes at the lower tail of the conditional distribution of exports. Hence, countries that export more in volume are those benefiting most from AfT. We also investigate which types of AfT are effective. In particular, we find that aid used to build production capacity is effective. This type of aid is associated with higher exports for almost all quantiles, with the effect increasing at the upper tail of the conditional distribution. Aid used to build infrastructure is also found to affect exports at the upper tail of the distribution. In contrast, aid for trade policy and aid disbursed for general budget support (an untargeted type of aid) are not associated with greater export levels. This finding holds true irrespective of the quantile.
    Keywords: F10 ; ddc:330 ; development aid ; North-South trade ; aid for trade ; panel data ; aid effectiveness
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-11-06
    Description: This paper focuses on the relationship between technological innovation and international trade. In particular, the effect of technological achievement on exports is studied. In order to measure technological innovation, the technological achievement index (TAI) is used, thus providing a summary of a society's technological achievements and allowing countries to be classified into four groups according to their level of technological innovation: Leaders, Potential Leaders, Dynamic Adopters and Marginalised. The effect of technological variables on sectoral exports is analysed using a gravity model of trade. The existence of a possible non-linear relationship is also investigated, since the effect of improved technological innovation on trade could vary according to the technological achievement in countries. Results show the expected positive effect of technological innovation on export performance and the existence of non-linearities is confirmed. A 'U-shaped' relationship is found between exports and creation of technology and between exports and diffusion of old innovations, whereas an inverted-'U-shaped' relationship is found between exports and diffusion of recent innovations and between exports and human skills.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Technological innovation ; sectoral exports ; gravity model ; panel data ; non-linearities ; Innovation ; Technischer Fortschritt ; Export ; Innovationsdiffusion ; Komparativer Kostenvorteil ; Gravitationsmodell ; Welt
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-02-24
    Description: This paper investigates whether financial obstacles, and, more generally, financial pressure faced by firms, significantly affect firm growth. For this purpose, we use an unbalanced panel of about 1,000,000 observations for around 155,000 non-financial corporations in five euro area countries. In addition to the balance sheet information in this panel, we also rely on firm-level survey data. In this way we are able to work out a direct measure of the firms’ probability of facing financing obstacles. Our results indicate that, though based on few variables, this measure appears to be relevant in explaining firm growth in four out of the five countries considered. Other firm-level variables related to the financial pressure faced by firms, such as cash flow (debt burden) are found to exert a positive (negative) impact on firm growth, while the results for leverage are less clear-cut.
    Keywords: C23 ; E22 ; G32 ; L11 ; L25 ; ddc:330 ; Financing Constraints ; Firm Growth ; panel data ; Unternehmenswachstum ; Unternehmensfinanzierung ; Kapitalstruktur ; KMU ; Panel ; Eurozone
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    Göttingen: Verein für Socialpolitik, Ausschuss für Entwicklungsländer
    Publication Date: 2016-12-07
    Description: This paper uses the gravity model of trade to investigate the link between bilateral and multilateral foreign aid and donor's exports. There are three primary findings from this approach. First, in the long term, the average return, in terms of an increase in the donor's level of goods exports, is approximately $ 2.15 US for every aid dollar spent on bilateral aid. Second, multilateral aid has a positive effect on export levels only in the short term, whereas in the long term, the effect is negative. Third, aid from other donors does not give rise to a displacement effect for a given donor-recipient trade relationship. This paper also makes comparisons among donors and finds that aid has a positive and significant effect on most donors' export levels.
    Keywords: F10 ; F35 ; ddc:330 ; exports ; foreign aid ; donors ; panel data ; sample selection ; GLM
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Göttingen: Verein für Socialpolitik, Ausschuss für Entwicklungsländer
    Publication Date: 2016-12-07
    Description: This study examines the effect of the Everything But Arms (EBA) trade preferences regime on exports from African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) Least Developed Countries (LDCs) to the European Union (EU). With this aim, an augmented gravity model is estimated for exports from the 79 ACP countries to the EU-15 for the time period 1995 to 2005 using panel data techniques. The model estimates are used to quantify the effect of the EBA preferences on the ACP LDCs' export performance and to compare it with the impact of official development assistance. In addition to their separate effects, the combined impact of EBA and aid flows is estimated. The main results show a negative effect of the EBA regime on exports. Otherwise, the combined effect of the EBA and aid on exports is positive, supporting an EU development strategy that includes both sorts of assistance, aid and trade preferences.
    Keywords: O24 ; C23 ; F13 ; F35 ; ddc:330 ; development aid ; trade preferences ; Everything But Arms ; panel data
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-02-24
    Description: This paper analyses the impact that firms financial position has on investment decisions using panel data from a large sample of non-financial corporations(around 120,000 firms) in six euro area countries(Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain). The results indicate that financial position is important to explain capital expenditures, as financial pressure appears relevant in explaining investment dynamics when it is proxied by cash flow, indebtedness and debt burden. The results also show di¤erences in the sensitivity of investment rates to changes in financial pressure across countries, which appears to be especially large in the Netherlands and Italy and relatively small in Germany.
    Keywords: C33 ; E22 ; G32 ; J23 ; ddc:330 ; balance sheet channel ; Financial pressure ; fixed investment ; panel data ; Investitionsentscheidung ; Investitionspolitik ; Unternehmensfinanzierung ; Kapitalstruktur ; Belgien ; Deutschland ; Frankreich ; Italien ; Niederlande ; Spanien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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