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  • 1
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper analyzes the impact of urbanization on CO2 emissions in developing countries, taking into account the presence of heterogeneity in the sample of countries and testing for the stability of the estimated elasticities over time. The sample covers the period from 1975 through 2003 for different groups of countries, classified according to their income levels. Our results show that, whereas the impact of population growth on emissions is above unity and only slightly different for upper, middle, and low- income countries, urbanization, demonstrate a very different impact on emissions for low and lower-middle-income countries and upper-middle income countries.
    Keywords: Q25 ; Q4 ; Q54 ; ddc:330 ; CO2 emissions ; developing countries ; panel data ; population growth ; urbanization ; Kohlendioxid ; Luftverunreinigung ; Bevölkerungswachstum ; Urbanisierung ; Entwicklungsländer
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-11-06
    Description: This paper focuses on the relationship between technological innovation and international trade. In particular, the effect of technological achievement on exports is studied. In order to measure technological innovation, the technological achievement index (TAI) is used, thus providing a summary of a society's technological achievements and allowing countries to be classified into four groups according to their level of technological innovation: Leaders, Potential Leaders, Dynamic Adopters and Marginalised. The effect of technological variables on sectoral exports is analysed using a gravity model of trade. The existence of a possible non-linear relationship is also investigated, since the effect of improved technological innovation on trade could vary according to the technological achievement in countries. Results show the expected positive effect of technological innovation on export performance and the existence of non-linearities is confirmed. A 'U-shaped' relationship is found between exports and creation of technology and between exports and diffusion of old innovations, whereas an inverted-'U-shaped' relationship is found between exports and diffusion of recent innovations and between exports and human skills.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Technological innovation ; sectoral exports ; gravity model ; panel data ; non-linearities ; Innovation ; Technischer Fortschritt ; Export ; Innovationsdiffusion ; Komparativer Kostenvorteil ; Gravitationsmodell ; Welt
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-02-24
    Description: This paper investigates whether financial obstacles, and, more generally, financial pressure faced by firms, significantly affect firm growth. For this purpose, we use an unbalanced panel of about 1,000,000 observations for around 155,000 non-financial corporations in five euro area countries. In addition to the balance sheet information in this panel, we also rely on firm-level survey data. In this way we are able to work out a direct measure of the firms’ probability of facing financing obstacles. Our results indicate that, though based on few variables, this measure appears to be relevant in explaining firm growth in four out of the five countries considered. Other firm-level variables related to the financial pressure faced by firms, such as cash flow (debt burden) are found to exert a positive (negative) impact on firm growth, while the results for leverage are less clear-cut.
    Keywords: C23 ; E22 ; G32 ; L11 ; L25 ; ddc:330 ; Financing Constraints ; Firm Growth ; panel data ; Unternehmenswachstum ; Unternehmensfinanzierung ; Kapitalstruktur ; KMU ; Panel ; Eurozone
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-02-24
    Description: This paper analyses the impact that firms financial position has on investment decisions using panel data from a large sample of non-financial corporations(around 120,000 firms) in six euro area countries(Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain). The results indicate that financial position is important to explain capital expenditures, as financial pressure appears relevant in explaining investment dynamics when it is proxied by cash flow, indebtedness and debt burden. The results also show di¤erences in the sensitivity of investment rates to changes in financial pressure across countries, which appears to be especially large in the Netherlands and Italy and relatively small in Germany.
    Keywords: C33 ; E22 ; G32 ; J23 ; ddc:330 ; balance sheet channel ; Financial pressure ; fixed investment ; panel data ; Investitionsentscheidung ; Investitionspolitik ; Unternehmensfinanzierung ; Kapitalstruktur ; Belgien ; Deutschland ; Frankreich ; Italien ; Niederlande ; Spanien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-06-22
    Description: This paper investigates Turkey?s sectoral trade flows to the EU based on panel data from the period 1988 to 2002. Turkey?s sixteen most important export sectors are analysed. Emphasis is placed on the role of price competition, EU protection, and transport costs in the export trade between Turkey and the EU. The empirical model used is an extended version of the gravity model. This study is also a contribution to the current discussion of whether Turkey should be granted full EU membership or a privileged partnership with the EU, which for Turkey would mean improved access to the EU market for its products, among other benefits. Our investigation focuses on the latter policy outcome: the impact of deepening the Customs Union between Turkey and the EU and applying the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) to Turkish agricultural exports. To this end, the impact of the 1996 Customs Union covering most industrial goods and processed agricultural goods, is evaluated on a sectoral level. We also perform simulations to quantify the impact of the potential inclusion of agricultural goods, as well as iron and steel and products thereof, into the full Customs Union between Turkey and the EU which is still to come.
    Keywords: F14 ; ddc:330 ; gravity model ; panel data ; sectoral trade flows ; price competition ; transport costs
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    Göttingen: Ibero-Amerika-Inst. für Wirtschaftsforschung
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Description: This study focuses primarily on trade preferences offered by the European Union (EU) and in particular on the Everything But Arms (EBA) trade preferences regime, which is targeted exclusively on least developed countries (LDCs). Using the gravity model, an estimation of the influence of the EBA preferences on exports from the ACP LDCs to the EU-15 is presented. The model is applied to the time period 1995 to 2005 for the ACP countries' exports to the EU-15 and estimated with the help of different econometric techniques. The core questions of the investigation are two: First, to examine the influence of the EBA preferences on the ACP LDCs' export performance and second to compare the impact of the EBA scheme with the one of official development assistance. In addition to their separate effects the combined impact of EBA and aid flows is also analysed. The main results show a very poor performance of the EBA regime. However, the combined effect of the EBA and aid on exports is positive, indicating that the development strategy of the developed countries, in this case of the EU, needs to include both sorts of assistance, aid and trade preferences.
    Keywords: O24 ; C23 ; F13 ; F35 ; ddc:330 ; development aid ; trade preferences ; Everything But Arms ; panel data ; Entwicklungshilfe ; Außenhandelspräferenz ; EU-Europäisch ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Export ; AKP-Staaten ; Vierte Welt
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    Göttingen: Ibero-Amerika-Inst. für Wirtschaftsforschung
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Description: This paper proposes a new analytical framework with which to analyze the determinants of global CO2 emissions. It contributes to the existing literature by examining the determinants of CO2 emissions using a flexible functional form (transcendental logarithmic model), taking into account the presence of dynamic effects and allowing for heterogeneity in the sample of countries. The sample covers 121 countries and the period analyzed extends from 1975 through 2003. Two main results emerge. First, a static specification is rejected against a dynamic model. Second, the data also reject a general specification for all countries; hence slopeheterogeneity in the estimated coefficients has to be modeled. Conversely, the STIRPAT model is generally accepted for high-income countries, whereas for developing countries several interaction terms also play a role in explaining CO2 emissions.
    Keywords: Q25 ; Q4 ; Q54 ; ddc:330 ; CO2 emissions ; developing countries ; panel data ; population growth ; urbanization ; Kohlendioxid ; Luftverunreinigung ; Bevölkerungswachstum ; Urbanisierung ; Panel ; Schätzung ; Welt ; Entwicklungsländer
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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