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  • long-term care insurance  (8)
  • 1
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2017-08-28
    Description: Germany introduced a new mandatory insurance for long-term care in 1995 as part of its social security system. It replaced a system based on means tested social welfare. Benefits from the long-term care insurance are not means tested and depend on the required level of care. The insurance provides both benefits in kind and cash benefits. The new scheme improved the situation for households to organize informal care at home. This was one goal of the reform since policymakers view informal care as a cost-saving alternative to formal care. This view however neglects possible opportunity costs of reduced labor supply of carers. We exploit this reform as a quasi-experiment and examine its effect on the labor supply of caregivers who live in the same household as the care recipient. We find strong negative labor market effects for men but not for women. We conduct a series of robustness tests and find results to be stable.
    Keywords: J22 ; H31 ; I13 ; ddc:330 ; labor supply ; long-term care ; long-term care insurance ; natural experiment ; quasi-experiment
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2017-08-28
    Description: Informal care by close family members is the main pillar of most longterm care systems. However, due to demographic ageing the need for long-term care is expected to increase while the informal care potential is expected to decline. From a budgetary perspective, informal care is often viewed as a cost-saving alternative to subsidized formal care. This view, however neglects that many family carers are of working age and face the difficulty to reconcile care and paid work which might entail sizable indirect fiscal effects related to forgone tax revenues, lower social security contributions and higher transfer payments. In this paper we use a structural model of labor supply and the choice of care arrangement to quantify these indirect fiscal effects of informal care. Moreover based on the model we discuss the fiscal effects related to non-take up of formal care.
    Keywords: J22 ; H31 ; I13 ; ddc:330 ; labor supply ; long-term care ; long-term care insurance ; structural model
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Unknown
    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2017-08-28
    Description: In Germany, individuals in need of long-term care receive support through benefits of the long-term care insurance. A central goal of the insurance is to support informal care provided by family members. Care recipients can choose between benefits in kind (formal home care services) and benefits in cash. From a budgetary perspective family care is a cost-saving alternative to formal home care and to stationary nursing care. However, the opportunity costs resulting from reduced labor supply of the carer are often overlooked. We focus on the labor supply decision of family carers and the incentives set by the long-term care insurance. We estimate a structural model of labor supply and the choice of benefits of family carers. We find that benefits in kind have small positive effects on labor supply. Labor supply elasticities of cash benefits are larger and negative. If both types of benefits increase, negative labor supply effects are offset to a large extent.
    Keywords: J22 ; H31 ; I13 ; ddc:330 ; labor supply ; long-term care ; long-term care insurance ; structural model
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Unknown
    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2017-08-28
    Description: Germany introduced a new mandatory insurance for long-term care in 1995 as part of its social security system. It replaced a system based on meanstested social welfare. Benefits from the long-term care insurance are not means tested and depend on the required level of care. The insurance provides both benefits in kind and cash benefits. The new scheme improved the situation for households to organize informal care at home. This was one goal of the reform since policymakers view informal care as a cost-saving alternative to formal care. This view however neglects possible opportunity costs of reduced labor supply of carers. We exploit this reform as a quasi-experiment and examine its effect on the labor supply of caregivers who live in the same household as the care recipient. We find strong negative labor market effects for men but not for women. We conduct a series of robustness tests and find results to be stable.
    Keywords: J22 ; H31 ; I13 ; ddc:330 ; labor supply ; long-term care ; long-term care insurance ; natural experiment ; quasi-experiment
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
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  • 5
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2017-08-28
    Description: In Germany, individuals in need of long-term care receive support through benefits of the long-term care insurance. A central goal of the insurance is to support informal care provided by family members. Care recipients can choose between benefits in kind (formal home care services) and benefits in cash. From a budgetary perspective family care is a cost-saving alternative to formal home care and to stationary nursing care. However, the opportunity costs resulting from reduced labor supply of the carer are often overlooked. We focus on the labor supply decision of family carers and the incentives set by the long-term care insurance. We estimate a structural model of labor supply and the choice of benefits of family carers. We find that benefits in kind have small positive effects on labor supply. Labor supply elasticities of cash benefits are larger and negative. If both types of benefits increase, negative labor supply effects are offset to a large extent.
    Keywords: J22 ; H31 ; I13 ; ddc:330 ; labor supply ; long-term care ; long-term care insurance ; structural model
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
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  • 6
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    Unknown
    Essen: Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (RWI)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-13
    Description: In Germany, individuals in need of long-term care receive support through benefits of the long-term care insurance. A central goal of the insurance is to support informal care provided by family members. Care recipients can choose between benefits in kind (formal home care services) and benefits in cash. From a budgetary perspective family care is a cost-saving alternative to formal home care and to stationary nursing care. However, the opportunity costs resulting from reduced labor supply of the carer are often overlooked. We focus on the labor supply decision of family carers and the incentives set by the long-term care insurance. We estimate a structural model of labor supply and the choice of benefits of family carers. We find that benefits in kind have small positive effects on labor supply. Labor supply elasticities of cash benefits are larger and negative. If both types of benefits increase, negative labor supply effects are offset to a large extent.
    Description: Eines der zentralen Ziele der deutschen Pflegeversicherung ist die Unterstützung informeller Pflege durch Familienangehörige. Die Pflegeversicherung bietet anspruchsberechtigten Personen die Möglichkeit, zwischen verschiedenen Leistungen zur Unterstützung der häuslichen Pflege zu wählen. Pflegegeld kann entweder als Geldleistung direkt ausgezahlt werden oder als Sachleistung (in Form von formeller Pflege durch Pflegedienstleister) in Anspruch genommen werden. Werden ausschließlich die direkten Ausgaben der Pflegeversicherung berücksichtigt, erscheinen Geldleistungen und damit informelle Pflege durch Familienangehörige als kostengünstiger im Vergleich zu den teureren Alternativen der formellen häuslichen Pflege oder der stationären Pflege in Pflegeheimen. Unberücksichtigt bleiben dabei jedoch die Opportunitätskosten der informellen Pflege, die vor allem durch ein reduziertes Arbeitsangebot der Pflegenden entstehen können. Wir untersuchen deshalb die Veränderungen der Arbeitsangebotsentscheidung und des Pflegeverhaltens informell pflegender Haushaltsmitglieder durch veränderte Anreize der Pflegeversicherung. Dafür schätzen wir ein strukturelles Modell des Arbeitsangebots und der Nachfrage nach Leistungen aus der Pflegeversicherung. Unsere Ergebnisse zeigen kleine positive Arbeitsangebotseffekte durch eine Ausweitung der Sachleistungen und große negative Effekte durch eine Erhöhung der Geldleistungen. Kommt es zu einer simultanen Ausweitung beider Leistungen, gleichen sich die die gegenläufigen Effekte zu großen Teilen gegenseitig aus und der Arbeitsangebotseffekt bleibt moderat.
    Keywords: J22 ; H31 ; I13 ; ddc:330 ; labor supply ; long-term care ; long-term care insurance ; structural model
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 7
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Essen: Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (RWI)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-13
    Description: Informal care by close family members is the main pillar of most long-term care systems. However, due to demographic ageing the need for long-term care is expected to increase while the informal care potential is expected to decline. From a budgetary perspective, informal care is often viewed as a cost-saving alternative to subsidized formal care. This view, however neglects that many family carers are of working age and face the difficulty to reconcile care and paid work which might entail sizable indirect fiscal effects related to forgone tax revenues, lower social security contributions and higher transfer payments. In this paper we use a structural model of labor supply and the choice of care arrangement to quantify these indirect fiscal effects of informal care. Moreover, based on the model we discuss the fiscal effects related to non-take-up of formal care.
    Description: Die Organisation der Altenpflege stützt sich in vielen Ländern auf die Bereitstellung informeller Pflege durch Familienangehörige. In alternden Gesellschaften gerät dieses System jedoch zunehmend unter Druck, da die Nachfrage nach Pflege steigt und gleichzeitig das Potenzial für Familienpflege sinkt. Die informelle Pflege wird aus fiskalpolitischer Sicht häufig als die kostengünstigste Variante der Altenpflege wahrgenommen. Die Bestimmung der gesamten fiskalischen Kosten erfordert jedoch eine Berücksichtigung von indirekte Kosten der informellen Pflege. Diese entstehen dadurch, dass viele pflegende Angehörige ihr Arbeitsangebot reduzieren, um auf die Doppelbelastung aus Pflege und Lohnarbeit zu reagieren. Dies führt zu geringeren Steuereinnahmen, reduzierten Sozialversicherungsbeiträgen und höheren Transferzahlungen. In dieser Studie nutzen wir ein strukturelles Modell des Arbeitsangebots und der Pflegearrangements, um diese indirekten fiskalischen Kosten zu quantifizieren. Darüber hinaus nutzen wir das Modell, um zusätzliche fiskalischen Effekte zu diskutieren, die durch eine Nichtinanspruchnahme (non-take up) von formeller ambulanter Pflege entstehen können.
    Keywords: J22 ; H31 ; I13 ; ddc:330 ; labor supply ; fiscal effects ; long-term care insurance ; structural model
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
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  • 8
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Essen: Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (RWI)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-13
    Description: Germany introduced a new mandatory insurance for long-term care in 1995 as part of its social security system. It replaced a system based on means tested social welfare. Benefits from the long-term care insurance are not means tested and depend on the required level of care. The insurance provides both benefits in kind and cash benefits. The new scheme improved the situation for households to organize informal care at home. This was one goal of the reform since policymakers view informal care as a cost-saving alternative to formal care. This view however neglects possible opportunity costs of reduced labor supply of carers. We exploit this reform as a quasi-experiment and examine its effect on the labor supply of caregivers who live in the same household as the care recipient. We find strong negative labor market effects for men but not for women. We conduct a series of robustness tests and find results to be stable.
    Description: Im Jahr 1995 wurde in Deutschland eine neue Pflegeversicherung eingeführt. Als Pflichtversicherung ist sie eine eigenständige Säule der Sozialversicherung und ersetzte ein System der einkommensabhängigen Sozialhilfe. Leistungen der neuen Pflegeversicherung werden durch den Grad der Pflegebedürftigkeit bestimmt und sind einkommensunabhängig. Da anspruchsberechtigte Pflegebedürftige zwischen Geld- und Sachleistungen wählen können, wurde die Situation von Haushalten, die häusliche, informelle Pflege organisieren müssen verbessert. Die informelle Pflege zu stärken war eines der wichtigsten Ziele der Pflegereform, da sie häufig als die kostengünstige Alternative im Vergleich zu formellen Pflege wahrgenommen wird. Diese Sichtweise ignoriert jedoch Opportunitätskosten, die entstehen, wenn Pflegende ihr Arbeitsangebot reduzieren, um die Doppelbelastung aus Pflege und Lohnarbeit abzuschwächen. Wir nutzen die Reform als Quasi-Experiment und untersuchen ihren Einfluss auf das Arbeitsangebot von Pflegenden, die mit einer pflegebedürftigen Person in einem Haushalt wohnen. Wir finden starke negative Arbeitsangebotseffekte für Männer, jedoch keine Effekte für Frauen.
    Keywords: J22 ; H31 ; I13 ; ddc:330 ; labor supply ; long-term care ; long-term care insurance ; natural experiment ; quasi-experiment
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
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