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  • catchment export  (1)
  • lead  (1)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-515X
    Keywords: catchment export ; catchment retention ; metals ; sediments
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Although catchments have been implicated as an important source of metals to lakes, the catchment contribution of different metals is poorly known, and the anthropogenic contribution is not known at all. We determine the anthropogenic lake sediment burdens of Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, and Pb for several Quebec and Ontario lakes, not subject to point source loading, to obtain estimates of atmospheric loading and inputs from terrestrial sources. To do this, we first collected multiple cores across 11 lake basins to estimate the whole-lake Pb burdens. As the whole-lake Pb burdens did not differ among lakes that spanned over two orders of magnitude in drainage ratios (drainage basin area/lake area), we conclude that catchment retention of anthropogenic Pb is complete. The anthropogenic Pb burdens were then used as a correction for focusing for the other metals. Among the metals, Cr and Ni were the most readily exported from drainage basins, followed by Cu. Zn showed no increase with drainage ratio, indicating Zn to be effectively retained by catchments. The export coefficients of the Pb corrected metals correlate well with ocean residence time, revealing a similar metal sorption/precipitation sequence in both soils and oceans. Sediment metal burdens provide a relatively easy way to obtain not only metal export coefficients from drainage basins, but also the atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic metals (e.g. Pb: S.E. Quebec, 950 mg*m−2: Laurentians, north of Montreal, 420 mg*m−2). The export coefficients are not only simpler to obtain than by mass balance measurements, but, in addition, identify the anthropogenic component.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Keywords: lead ; pollution ; Ontario ; Quebec ; lakes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The isotopic composition of lead pollution in the environment provides information as to the source of emission. The 206Pb/207Pb ratio for Canadian industrial emissions (1.153±0.005) is significantly less than U.S. industrial emissions (1.213±0.008) making it possible to determine the relative contributions of emissions from both countries within Eastern North America by means of a simple isotopic mixing model. Profundal sediments in lakes chronicle contaminant inputs and are therefore useful monitors of environmental pollution. Surface sediment from 32 sediment cores across Quebec and Ontario, Canada were analyzed for 206Pb/207Pb to ascertain the relative proportions of Pb emission from Canada and the U.S.A. Data show that U.S. contributions to the total lead burden in surficial sediments across much of southern Quebec and Ontario are often in excess of 50%. Local sources were particularly important in the Eastern Township region of Quebec which lies 200 km south east of the city of Montreal. The results are discussed in relation to the major sources of industrial lead emissions in North America.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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