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  • healthy volunteers  (17)
  • Springer  (17)
  • 1980-1984  (17)
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  • Springer  (17)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: alaproclate ; antipyrine clearance ; serotonin reuptake inhibitor ; healthy volunteers ; antipyrine metabolism ; metabolite clearance ; alaproclate kinetics ; inhibition of drug metabolism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Alaproclate, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, presently undergoing clinical trial for the treatment of major depressive disorders, has been shown to inhibit hexobarbital metabolism in mice. In the present study the influence of oral alaproclate on the total plasma clearance of antipyrine and on the formation of its metabolites was investigated in 10 healthy volunteers. The peak level of alaproclate was reached after about 1.5 h, and after a distribution phase, its plasma elimination half-life was between 3.0 and 3.5 h. Antipyrine tests were performed before treatment, during the first four doses and after the seventh dose of alaproclate 200 mg/day. During treatment, total plasma antipyrine clearance and the clearance for production of all antipyrine metabolites were reduced by 30%, indicating non-selective inhibition of oxidative drug-metabolizing enzyme activity in man by alaproclate. After the last dose of alaproclate, antipyrine plasma clearance and the clearance to its metabolites returned to control values. In order to allow more detailed evaluation of the results, the time course of the clearances for production of metabolites was investigated. This revealed that the extent of inhibition of metabolite formation by alaproclate was dependent on the plasma alaproclate level, indicating a rapidly reversible inhibition.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: antipyrine ; antipyrine metabolites ; drug metabolism ; route of administration ; healthy volunteers ; urinary excretion ; pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The pharmacokinetics of antipyrine in plasma and saliva, and urinary excretion of its major metabolites, were studied following i.v. and oral administration of antipyrine 500 mg to 6 healthy volunteers. Data from both plasma and saliva showed that the oral bioavailability of antipyrine given as an aqueous solution was complete. The saliva/plasma concentration ratio was constant with time from about 3 h onwards, with a mean value of 0.87 after oral and 0.91 after i.v. administration. It is concluded that the pharmacokinetic parameters of antipyrine can be satisfactorily established on the basis of salivary data, although the volume of distribution and clearance values are then slightly too high. After i.v. administration, 3.8±1.9% of the dose was excreted in urine as unchanged antipyrine in 48h, 24.9±6.3% as 4-hydroxyantipyrine, 16.5±3.2% as norantipyrine, 13.0±2.2% as 3-hydroxymethyl-antipyrine and 5.8±1.0% as 3-carboxy-antipyrine. No significant differences were observed following oral administration. The half-lives calculated from the linear part of the urinary excretion rate curves of the metabolites were about the same for oral and i.v. administration, and were of the same order of magnitude as the elimination half-life of parent drug in plasma and saliva. It is important for determination of the ultimate metabolite ratio that urine is collected for at least 36h, because there is a delay in the excretion of 3-hydroxymethyl-antipyrine in urine.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: cibenzoline ; pharmacokinetics ; bioavailability ; urinary excretion ; antiarrhythmic drug ; healthy volunteers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The kinetics of cibenzoline (UP 339.01), a new antiarrhythmic drug, was studied after i.v. and oral administration to 5 healthy subjects. Cibenzoline levels in plasma and urine cibenzoline were measured by a GLC method. After i.v. administration, the total clearance was 826 ml · min−1. The fraction of cibenzoline excreted unchanged in the urine was 0.602 and it was correlated with the creatinine clearance. After i.v. and oral administration, the renal clearances were 499 ml · min−1 and 439 ml · min−1, and the half-lives were 4 h 01 min and 3 h 24 min, respectively. The differences were not significant. Availability by the oral route was 0.92, the maximum plasma concentration being observed at 1 h 36 min. The results were compared with those for other antiarrhythmic drugs.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: benzodiazepine antagonist ; visual function ; intrinsic effect ; Ro 15-1788 ; healthy volunteers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Ro 15-1788 is a specific benzodiazepine antagonist, which has also been shown to have some agonist properties. Since benzodiazepine receptors are involved in the physiological mechanisms of vision, a possible intrinsic effect of Ro 15-1788 was sought in 6 healthy volunteers by study of psychophysical flicker thresholds, including critical fusion frequency and low frequency modulation threshold, and pattern reversal visual evoked response, using double blind cross-over methodology. In each session 2 tablets of Ro 15-1788 30 mg were administered. Using a two factorial univariate analysis of variancé, no change was detected in any of the parameters studied.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: digoxin ; bioavailability ; dose-dependency ; urinary excretion ; healthy volunteers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Nine healthy volunteers received single 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mg doses of oral digoxin tablets in random sequence on five occasions separated by at least 4 weeks. Urinary excretion of immunoassayable digoxin was determined from 8 consecutive 24 h urine samples collected after each dose. Mean values of cumulative urinary excretion of digoxin at the 5 doses were: 40.9, 35.6, 36.4, 34.1, and 33.5% of the dose (F=0.64; d. f.=4.32; N. S.). Mean values of urinary excretion half-life were: 2.48, 2.03, 2.20, 2.07, and 1.87 days (F=2.87; d. f.=4.32;p=0.05). Thus, the bioavailability of orally administered digoxin tablets in healthy volunteers is dose-independent over an 8-fold range of doses.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: mianserin ; blood ; plasma ; oral kinetic parameters ; healthy volunteers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The kinetics of mianserin have been evaluated in eight healthy male volunteers following a single oral dose of 60 mg. Plasma and blood concentrations of mianserin were measured by gas chromatography-mass fragmentography. The peak blood concentration observed was 65 µg/l at 3 h following the dose. Mean kinetic parameters (and range) calculated from the blood concentrations were: (t1/2)abs 1.1 h (0.3–2.8), (t1/2)α 2.5 h (0.9–4.7), (t1/2)β 21 h (14–33), (Vd)β 27.5 l/kg (16.8–46.5) and Cloral 0.98 l/kg/h (0.47–1.75). Blood/plasma concentration ratios ranged from 0.50–0.74.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: zetidoline ; prolactin ; aldosterone ; dopamine ; healthy volunteers ; pharmacodynamic effects
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The neuroendocrinological effects of acute oral administration of 20 mg zetidoline, a new antipsychotic drug with antidopaminergic properties, were evaluated in 8 healthy volunteers, by a double-blind, crossover comparison with placebo. Zetidoline significantly increased serum prolactin (p〈0.01 at 1–3 h; p〈0.05 at 4–6 h). No significant change was observed in blood levels of aldosterone, renin, cortisol, growth hormone and electrolytes, or in blood pressure and heart rate. The data suggest that the drug increases prolactin through blockade of dopaminergic receptors. The lack of change in the aldosterone levels may be evidence against the hypothesis of dopaminergic control of aldosterone secretion.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: theophylline ; inhalation ; saliva-serum distribution ; healthy volunteers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Six healthy volunteers received an iv infusion of 317 mg lysine theophylline (equivalent to 197 mg anhydrous theophylline) in order to calculate theophylline clearance by standard methods. They subsequently received a 20 minute inhalation of nebulised lysine theophylline. Serum and salivary theophylline concentrations were measured and all saliva was collected for the first hour. From these concentrations estimates were made of the distribution of theophylline into the blood and saliva with 40% to 94% identified in the blood. Very high salivary concentrations were reached during the inhalation phase with saliva: serum concentration ratios of between 60 and 1600.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: pizotifen 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ; homovanillic acid ; urinary excretion ; healthy volunteers ; migraine prevention
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A single dose of 0.5 mg pizotifen or a placebo was administered to 10 healthy male volunteers in a double blind cross-over trial. 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in hourly urine samples were determined by liquid chromatography with amperometric detection. The 5-HIAA levels were strongly correlated with the HVA levels in control samples (r=0.95, p〈0.001). Pizotifen produced a significant increase in the urinary 5-HIAA/HVA ratio over the 3 hours following absorption of the drug (+0.21, +0.18, +0.19, p〈0.05). The increase demonstrates an interaction between pizotifen and 5-HT metabolism, which may be involved in its antimigraine effect.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: molsidomine ; vasodilators ; pharmacokinetics ; pharmacodynamics ; dose-response relationship ; haemodynamics ; healthy volunteers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In 12 healthy male volunteers, molsidomine 1, 2 and 4 mg i.v. increased resting heart rate and decreased systolic blood pressure, the latter still being affected after 8 hours. After single oral doses of 1 and 2 mg, systolic pressure tended to be reduced for 90 minutes and exercise heart rate tended to be increased. After oral treatment with 2 mg molsidomine three times daily for 1 week, the pharmacokinetic parameters and the effects on heart rate and blood pressure after the final dose were not different from those after the first dose. The terminal half-life was independent of dose and route of administration. Clearance and distribution volume were not dose-dependent. The bioavailability of a 2 mg oral dose of molsidomine was 44%. Inter-individual variation in heart rate, blood pressure and pharmacokinetics was observed.
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