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  • grazing  (2)
  • synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy  (2)
  • 1995-1999  (4)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-515X
    Keywords: dissolved humic substances ; FTIR spectroscopy ; land use history ; peat ; synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy ; UV/VIS spectroscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The elemental composition and spectroscopic properties of dissolved fulvic acids isolated from different sampling media (topsoil, ground and surface water) of a natural fen area (high portion of organic soils) were examined to reveal the effects of land use history. These effects need to be known if dissolved humic substances are to be a major factor in identifying the impact of present and future changes in land use. Dissolved fulvic acids (topsoil, groundwater) from highly degraded peatlands (due to a long-term agricultural use) exhibit lower C/N ratios, higher absorption in the UV spectra, and higher absorption at 1,620 cm−1 in the FTIR spectra compared with fulvic acids from relatively intact peatlands. These properties illustrate that long-term agricultural use with high inputs results in increased aromatic structures and a further humification of dissolved fulvic acids due to very strong peat decomposition compared with relatively intact peatlands. Synchronous fluorescence spectra also indicate the higher level of aromatic structures within fulvic acids isolated from sites with long-term agricultural use (high peat decomposition) compared with a land use history resulting in a lower peat decomposition. The different sources of fulvic acids in surface water (precipitation, runoff, interflow, groundwater) are the main reason for these effects not being detected in fulvic acids isolated from surface water. Short-term changes in land use characterized by a transition from crop farming to an unimproved grassland were found not to affect the spectroscopic properties of dissolved fulvic acids. A humification index deduced from the synchronous fluorescence spectra is proposed. We have strong evidence that dissolved humic substances indicate changes in the environmental conditions (both anthropogenic and natural) of wetlands with a high proportion of organic soils.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-515X
    Keywords: dissolved humic substances ; FTIR spectroscopy ; land use history ; peat ; synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy ; UV/VIS spectroscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The elemental composition and spectroscopic properties of dissolved fulvic acids isolated from different sampling media (topsoil, ground and surface water) of a natural fen area (high portion of organic soils) were examined to reveal the effects of land use history. These effects need to be known if dissolved humic substances are to be a major factor in identifying the impact of present and future changes in land use. Dissolved fulvic acids (topsoil, groundwater) from highly degraded peatlands (due to a long-term agricultural use) exhibit lower C/N ratios, higher absorption in the UV spectra, and higher absorption at 1,620 cm−1 in the FTIR spectra compared with fulvic acids from relatively intact peatlands. These properties illustrate that long-term agricultural use with high inputs results in increased aromatic structures and a further humification of dissolved fulvic acids due to very strong peat decomposition compared with relatively intact peatlands. Synchronous fluorescence spectra also indicate the higher level of aromatic structures within fulvic acids isolated from sites with long-term agricultural use (high peat decomposition) compared with a land use history resulting in a lower peat decomposition. The different sources of fulvic acids in surface water (precipitation, runoff, interflow, groundwater) are the main reason for these effects not being detected in fulvic acids isolated from surface water. Short-term changes in land use characterized by a transition from crop farming to an unimproved grassland were found not to affect the spectroscopic properties of dissolved fulvic acids. A humification index deduced from the synchronous fluorescence spectra is proposed. We have strong evidence that dissolved humic substances indicate changes in the environmental conditions (both anthropogenic and natural) of wetlands with a high proportion of organic soils.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1572-9753
    Keywords: butterflies ; Gentiana cruciata ; management ; grazing ; Bavaria.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Nature of Science, Research, Systems of Higher Education, Museum Science
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1572-9753
    Keywords: grazing ; mowing ; fens ; hay-meadows ; conservation.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Nature of Science, Research, Systems of Higher Education, Museum Science
    Notes: Abstract Traditional hay-meadows in the Alps and fens at the edge of the Alps are habitats for many rare and endangered butterfly species. Conservation efforts aim at preserving these species, but the biotopes depend on regular mowing, which in turn requires intensive financial support. The feasibility of substituting mowing of these sites by grazing is discussed and considered as a more cost effective management type which produces agriculturally valuable goods as well. In this study the butterfly fauna of mown and grazed sites were compared. Species composition, species number, and the occurrence of rare species under the two management types were in most cases rather similar for both grassland ecosystems. Nevertheless, there are hints that for single rare species this might not be true. Additionally, at one site, grazing intensity on a former hay-meadow was too high to preserve the species-rich community. Overall the results are encouraging: grazing does not have to be as detrimental as formerly thought, although details (compartments of pastures, intensity) still have to be confirmed. Experimental grazing management of aban-doned grasslands of the studied types should be started.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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