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  • 1
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Resolution of atropisomers ; Alkylated biphenyls ; Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) ; Dynamic gas chromatography ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Selectively alkylated cyclodextrins have been used to resolve the enantiomers of 2,2′ alkylated biphenyls. The configurational stability of 2,2′-dimethyl and 2,2′-diethyl biphenyls is insufficient for gas chromatographic separation even at ambient temperature. 2-Isopropyl-2′-t-butyl- and 2,2′-di-t-butylbiphenyl are configurationally stable under the conditions applied, whereas 2,2′-diisopropyl- and 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)biphenyl show temperature-dependent interconversion of the enantiomers during chromatography. The gas chromatographic separation of the enantiomers of some ortho trichlorinated biphenyls carrying 4, 5, and 6 chlorine substituents has been demonstrated for the first time.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0947-3440
    Keywords: Atropisomers ; Biphenyls, axially chiral ; Enantiomerization ; Dynamic gas chromatography ; Polarimetry ; Energy barriers ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We have synthesized a series of 2,2′-substituted biphenyls and particularly derivatives of 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)biphenyl (4) with either one or two fluoro, chloro, bromo, amino, nitro or methoxy substituents in the para positions for investigating the influence of these substituents on the rotational energy barrier of the biphenyls by polarimetry and dynamic gas chromatography (DGC). Axially chiral biphenyls with at least two bulky substituents in the ortho positions were separated by gas chromatography on selectively modified cyclodextrins. Due to competition between resolution and enantiomerization in the gas chromatographic column 2-tert-butyl-2′-isopropyl- (2), 2-isopropyl-2′-(trifluoromethyl)biphenyl (5), and some para-substituted derivatives of 4 show temperature-dependent interconversion profiles and coalescence phenomena in analogy to dynamic NMR studies. The accelerating effect on the rate of enantiomerization of electron-donating groups in the para positions and the decelerating effect of electron-accepting groups has been determined. Dynamic gas chromatography is shown to be a useful supplement to studies of thermal enantiomerization kinetics of optically enriched or separated compounds by polarimetry for the investigation of energy barriers of atropisomeric biphenyls.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1040-7685
    Keywords: Enantiomers ; gas chromatography ; cyclodextrin derivatives ; temperature dependence ; capillary columns ; selectivity ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The effect of dilution of the chiral stationary phase octakis (3-O-butyryl-2, 6-di-O-pentyl)-γ-cyclodextrin in the achiral polysiloxane OV-1701 on the separation factor was investigated over a wide concentration range. The loss in enantioselectivity was only negligible down to a dilution of 50% (w/w), since the separation factor vs. concentration curves levels off at higher concentrations. Because of the strong temperature dependence of the separation factors, the properties of short columns (10 m and 4.5 m) were evaluated. These short columns, which allow operation at low temperatures and lead to enhanced separation factors were found to be appropriate for the separations of simple mixtures, because the gain in selectivity exceeded the loss in separation efficiency. For complex mixtures, the higher efficiencies of columns of at least 25 m in length were still necessary. A plot of In α vs. 1/T did not yield straight lines, but showed a significant curvature, leading to considerable relative errors if thermodynamic data were derived from these plots.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: gas chromatography ; modified β-cyclodextrin column ; chiral separation ; assay ; mexiletine ; hydroxylated metabolites ; urine ; conjugation/deconjugation ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The enantiomers of mexiletine and four of its hydroxylated metabolites were directly separated by capillary gas chromatography using a heptakis(6-O-tert-butyl-dimethylsilyl-2,3-di-O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin column. The method was applied to the analysis of urine samples from cancer patients who were treated with racemic mexiletine as part of a study of the use of mexiletine in the relief of neuropathic pain. Samples analyzed before and after deconjugation of the urine with β-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase showed a high stereoselectivity in the formation and conjugation of these compounds. © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Enantioselective capillary gas chromatography ; Cyclodextrins ; Inverse substitution pattern ; Mechanism of chiral recognition ; Applications ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Transferring the site of specific substitution of dipentylated cyclodextrins with methyl or acyl residues from the secondary 3-hydroxyl group to the primary 6-hydroxyl group was expected to provide new information on the mechanism of chiral recognition. The 3-position points towards and the 6-position points away from the cyclodextrin cavity which via inclusion complex formation is supposed to play a major role in chiral separation. The “inverse” 6-O-acyl-2,3-di-O-pentyl-cyclodextrins displayed almost no enantioselectivity but the corresponding 6-O-methyl derivatives are a versatile supplement to the chiral capillary GC phases nowadays available. Among the compounds that could be enantiomerically resolved are alcohols, amino acids, alkyl halides, bicyclic ethers, acetals, olefins, other hydrocarbons and chiral pharmaceuticals.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0009-2940
    Keywords: Host-guest complexes ; Molecular-dynamics (MD) simulation ; Enantioselective gas chromatography ; Cyclodextrins ; Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The energies of complexation of methyl (R)/(S)-2-chloropropionate [(R)/(S)-2] with heptakis(3-O-acetyl-2,6-di-O-pentyl)-β-cyclodextrin (1) and the structures of the corresponding complexes were determined by molecular-dynamcis (MD) simulations at 300 and 333 K. The geometry of the complexes, the conformations of complexed and uncomplexed 1 and (R)/(S)-2 and the closest H-H distances between host and guest in the complexes were determined from the trajectories. The results correspond to the experimental findings from enantioselective gas chromatography.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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