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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-4927
    Keywords: evolution ; polyploidy ; ribosomal RNA genes ; cyprinid fish
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Phylogenetically diploid and tetraploid cyprinid fish species have cells of very similar volumes and protein contents. This finding has prompted us to postulate a regulatory system established during the evolution of the tetraploids leading to a diploid state of genic expression. It was proposed that this might be accounted for by a selective loss of ribosomal genes. RNA-DNA hybridization experiments, however, reveal a clear-cut 1:2 relationship of ribosomal DNA amounts between the diploid and the tetraploid species.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-4927
    Keywords: evolution ; polyploidy ; RNA content ; protein content ; enzyme activities ; Cyprinidae ; Isospondyli
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The ratio of cellular RNA and protein content is about 1:1 between phylogenetically diploid and tetraploid species of the teleost family Cyprinidae, but is roughly in proportion to ploidy in species of the teleost order Isospondyli. Enzyme activities do not unequivocally comply with this scheme. These findings are discussed in view of the hypothesis that a regulatory mechanism which reduces genic activity has evolved in the tetraploid cyprinids but not in the tetraploid species of the order Isospondyli.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-4927
    Keywords: cell size ; evolution ; gene action ; isoenzymes ; polyplodiy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract By use of cell size, protein and hemoglobin content, and enzyme activities as markers, it becomes apparent that in the course of evolution the gene expression of anciently tetraploid fish of the order Ostariophysi was diploidized, but no such regulatory mechanism has evolved in the phylogenetically tetraploid species of the order Isospondyli. This finding is discussed in terms of possible selective neutrality of tetraploid expression and the phylogenetic age of Isospondyli.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-4927
    Keywords: evolution ; polyploidy ; ribosomal RNA genes ; Isospondyli
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Phylogenetically tetraploid species of the fish order Isospondyli generally have twice the mean ribosomal gene content as closely related species on the phylogenetically diploid level. Considerable intraspecific variation of rDNA amount was observed. These findings are discussed in view of the hypothesis that selective loss of ribosomal genes may account for diminishing genic activity in phylogenetically tetraploid organisms.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0148-7280
    Keywords: acrosin inhibitors ; acrosome ; evolution ; spermatogenesis ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The acrosome of the mammalian spermatozoon contains proacrosin that is autocatalytically activated to become the proteolytic enzyme acrosin during the process of fertilization. Tschesche et al [1982] isolated specific acrosin inhibitors and suggested that they block prematurely activated acrosin. Antibodies against acrosin inhibitors purified from boar spermatozoa were used to demonstrate the evolutionaary relationship and the developmental pattern of the inhibitors in mammals. Using immunofluorescent techniques the following results were obtained: (1) The spermatozoa of man, boar, bull, ram, rat, rabbit, beaver, and mole stained positive in the acrosomal portion. (2) The round-headed spermatozoa of patients with globozoospermia and those in the ejaculates of fertile men lacked immunostaining for the inhibitors. (3) During spermatogenesis in all species, immunofluorescence for the acrosin inhibitors was first demonstrable in haploid spermatids and increased thereafter during spermatid differentiation. The stained area was found adjacent to the nuclear membrane, the position of the acrosome. (4) During teratogenesis of round-headed spermatozoa, the immunofluorescent staining for the inhibitors becomes separated from the nuclear membrane of the spermatids and is lost in late spermatids. Since identical results have been described for acrosin and acrosomal membrane proteins both in spermatozoa and spermatids of mammalian species and during spermiogenesis of patients with globozoospermia, our results are consistent with the localisation of the inhibitors in the acrosome. Immunostaining of spermatozoa of species belonging to five different mammalian orders with the antibody against boar acrosin-inhibitors is indicative of an evolutionary conservation of the inhibitors and their underlying genes.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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