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  • Growth rate  (2)
  • etintidine  (2)
  • Springer  (4)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: etintidine ; high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) ; solid extraction ; determination of etintidine in plasma
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract This paper describes a new, rapid solid extraction method for the determination of etintidine in plasma. The method employs a semiautomatic sample preparation system. Plasma samples and the internal standard (cimetidine) were applied onto octyl-bonded silica extraction columns. The extraction columns were then subjected to Tris buffer and water wash and were subsequently loaded onto an automatic sample injection system. The contents of the extraction columns were eluted on-line with a mobile phase of acetonitrile:methanol:0.1% ammonium hydroxide (85:10:5, by volume) onto a silica analytical column and detected by UV absorption at 229 nm. The chromatographic condition separates etintidine from some of its metabolites and other endogenous components in plasma. The detection limit for etintidine was 0.02–0.05 µg/ml when 0.2 ml of plasma was used. This method has been used for the determination of plasma etintidine levels in humans and mice after oral administration of etintidine and was found to be suitable for pharmacokinetic/bioavailability studies of etintidine in humans and animals. The method can also be used for the quantitative determination of cimetidine and certain metabolites of etintidine.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-8744
    Keywords: etintidine ; propranolol ; 4-hydroxypropranolol ; interaction ; pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Etintidine HCl is a potent H2 -blocker. The effect of clinical doses of etintidine on the disposition of a single oral dose of propranolol was investigated in 12 normal subjects. This was a double-blind, two-way crossover study. Each subject received etintidine (400 mg) or placebo twice a day with meals for 4 days on two occasions (separated by 4 days). On each occasion, the subjects were fasted overnight on Day 3 and were given an oral dose of Inderal® (40 mg propranolol hydrochloride) 30 min following the administration of the morning dose of etintidine or placebo on Day 4. Blood samples were collected prior to and up to 24 hr following the administration of propranolol. The plasma samples were analyzed for propranolol and 4-hydroxypropranolol by HPLC. Comparison of the pharmacokinetic parameters of propranolol between etintidine and the placebo groups indicates that etintidine significantly increased the AUC0−∞,values (573.5 vs. 146.4 ng·hr/ml, p=0.0001)and prolonged the elimination half-life (4.61 vs. 2.33 hr) of propranolol. Statistical evaluation of the pharmacokinetic parameters of 4-hydroxypropanolol indicates that etintidine also increased the AUC0−24 values (43.8 vs. 16.4 ng·hr/ml, p=0.0028) and prolonged the elimination half-life (4.87 vs. 1.97 hr) of 4-hydroxypropranolol. The data suggest that etintidine, like cimetidine, impaired the elimination of propranolol. Etintidine also protracted the elimination of 4-hydroxypropranolol, an active metabolite of propranolol.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-5133
    Keywords: Amazonia ; Batoidea ; Brazil ; Captive breeding ; Chondrichthyes ; Colombia ; Elasmobranchii ; Freshwater adaptation ; Growth rate ; Potamotrygonidae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Synopsis Observations of reproductive features and body measurements were made on wild-caught, freshwater stingrays, Potamotrygon circularis and P. motoro, from the Amazon drainage of western Brazil and southern Colombia. Further observations were made in Detroit's Belle Isle Aquarium on a captive pair of P. motoro and their descendants, which constitute the first known captive breeding colony of potamotrygonids. The gross structure and function of female and male reproductive systems are described. There is no obvious difference between those of the two species. They are aplacentally viviparous, the young being nourished in advanced stages by uterine milk secreted by trophonemata. Size at onset and completion of sexual maturation, breeding season and behavior, gestation period, litter size and sex ratios are discussed. Up to 21 proportional measurements were made on several fetal and postnatal stages of both species. Several proportional changes occur in very early fetal life, but most body proportions undergo only minor changes from advanced fetal through adult stages. A growth curve is proposed for P. motoro based on observations of the captive colony.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-5133
    Keywords: Batoids ; Chondrichthyes ; Costa Rica ; Elasmobranchs ; Euryhalinity ; Freshwater adaptation ; Growth rate ; Isolation of population ; Nicaragua
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Synopsis Of a total of 377 Pristis perotteti tagged in the Lake Nicaragua-Río San Juan System, 214 (56.8% were recovered. Eighty were recovered at the original tagging site; four moved downstream the full length of the river; and 127 tagged at the source of the river were recovered in all parts of the lake. Only one was recovered in a different river system, 58 km down the coast from the main mouth of the Río San Juan. A life span of 30 years is suggested, with rapid growth (30–40 cm per year) in the first three years, slowing to about 4 or 5 cm per year in the later years of life. Maximum sizes collected were 384 cm for males, 429 cm for females, smaller than maximum lengths reported elsewhere. The lake sawfish are not physically landlocked, but individuals remain in fresh water for very long periods; parturition takes place in fresh water; all sizes are found in the lake; and it appears that this stock finds all of its ecological needs met in the lake. Individuals may spend all of their lives in fresh water, although, as a species, P. perotteti has not completely abandoned the sea, since some are known to occur in salt water. The Lake Nicaragua-Río San Juan sawfish are a discrete stock, with only limited gene flow with neighboring stocks. P. perotteti is farther along in its adaptation to fresh water, in being able both to osmoregulate and reproduce there, than other known euryhaline elasmobranchs, except for the African stingray, Dasyatis garouaensis, of the Niger-Benue System, and the completely adapted South American freshwater rays (family Potamotrygonidae).
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