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  • distributional analysis  (1)
  • environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)  (1)
  • solanesol  (1)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1539-6924
    Keywords: 16-City Study ; avoidance ; environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) ; personal monitoring ; workplace exposure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Concentrating on exposure in workplaces where smoking occurs, we examined environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)-related concentration data from the 16-City Study.(1,2) This study involved a large population of nonsmokers, used personal monitors, and encompassed a wide selection of ETS-related constituents. This first article in a series of three describes the 16-City Study, considers the impact of demographic variables, and concludes that these variables did not explain differences in exposure to ETS. We compared 16-City Study concentrations obtained in the workplace to previously reported workplace concentrations and determined that data from this study were representative of current ETS exposure in nonmanufacturing workplaces where smoking occurs. Considering factors other than demographic factors, we found that, not surprisingly, the number of cigarettes observed in the workplace had an impact on exposure concentrations. Finally, we compared people from homes where smoking occurs with people from nonsmoking homes and found that people from smoking homes observed more smoking in the workplace and experienced higher concentrations of ETS-related compounds in the workplace, even when they observed the same number of cigarettes being smoked in the workplace. In two subsequent articles in this series, we discuss relationships between various ETS markers and provide estimates of distributions of doses to nonsmoking workers employed in workplaces where smoking occurs.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1539-6924
    Keywords: 16-City Study ; distributional analysis ; dose distributions ; environmental tobacco smoke ; Monte Carlo ; nicotine ; solanesol ; ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter ; workplace exposure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The ultimate goal of the research reported in this series of three articles is to derive distributions of doses of selected environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)-related chemicals for nonsmoking workers. This analysis uses data from the 16-City Study collected with personal monitors over the course of one workday in workplaces where smoking occurred. In this article, we describe distributions of ETS chemical concentrations and the characteristics of those distributions (e.g., whether the distribution was log normal for a given constituent) for the workplace exposure. Next, we present population parameters relevant for estimating dose distributions and the methods used for estimating those dose distributions. Finally, we derive distributions of doses of selected ETS-related constituents obtained in the workplace for people in smoking work environments. Estimating dose distributions provided information beyond the usual point estimate of dose and showed that the preponderance of individuals exposed to ETS in the workplace were exposed at the low end of the dose distribution curve. The results of this analysis include estimations of hourly maxima and time-weighted average (TWA) doses of nicotine from workplace exposures to ETS (extrapolated from 1 day to 1 week) and doses derived from modeled lung burdens of ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter (UVPM) and solanesol resulting from workplace exposures to ETS (extrapolated from 1 day to 1 year).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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