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  • 1
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: free volume ; autoacceleration ; inhibition ; tertiary amines ; friction coefficient ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The epoxy-diamine cure process was studied. We found that the mechanism can be described in three steps: (i) initiation up to 20-25% of conversion. (ii) autoacceleration and (iii) inhibition. It has been observed that after the initiation there is a clear autoacceleration effect which has been explained in terms of free volume, considerations: the volume occupied by the products of reaction diminishes the available volume increasing the “local concentration” of the reactants and therefore the rate of reaction. The reaction was followed by FTIR (near infrared) as the main technique. We used a purified epoxy resin as well as phenyl glycidyl ether cured with m-xylenediamine. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1001-1016, 1998
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 62 (1996), S. 1361-1376 
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Research in urethane-acrylate UV-curables has shown that these materials have mechanical properties inferior to those of thermoplastic polyurethanes with very similar composition owing to the high cross-link density in UV-curables; in particular, their ultimate extension is low (less than 100%). Past attempts at increasing the ultimate extension involved compromising the advantages of the UV-curing process. In this work, thermally labile bonds were made and then broken after curing, so as to incorporate thermoplastic polyurethane in the UV-cured polymer. This method achieved the desired improvement in ultimate properties without compromising the advantages of the UV-curing process. Two different reactive diluents and three different chain extenders were utilized, keeping the soft segment type (PPO), hard segment type (IPDI), and their weight fractions constant. The resulting polymers were similar to interpenetrating networks of linear or cross-linked polyurethanes and linear or cross-linked polyacrylates with properties entirely different from their UV-cured precursors, as well as the corresponding polyurethanes. All the materials involved were characterized by tensile testing and dynamic mechanical analysis. The ultimate extensions as well as the ultimate strength of the final polymers were found to be significantly greater than those of the corresponding UV-curable precursors, while the degree of phase separation was found to have changed. The differences in mechanical properties of the UV curables and the polyurethanes cannot be explained in terms of differences in cross-link density or composition and are probably due to differences in their morphology. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The thermal degradation of poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) was studied by dynamic thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in the range 200-600°C under nitrogen and oxygen atmospheres at various heating rates. The apparent activation energy of the degradative process was determined by the application of kinetic treatments, giving an average value of 242 kj/mol in N2, whereas in the presence of oxygen, two trends may be considered: At relatively low temperatures (200-400°C) and degrees of conversion, α, lower than 0.5, we obtained an average value of 199 kj/mol, whereas in the temperature interval 400-600°C with degrees of conversion higher than 0.5, the value of Ea was 306 kj/mol. Isothermal experiments carried out in N2 in the interval 350-400°C gave an average value of Ea = 231 kj/mol, in good agreement with that obtained from dynamic treatments. The FTIR spectra of the volatile compounds evolved in degradation experiments carried out in N2 as well as in the presence of oxygen suggest that PVP is thermally degraded, predominantly, by the release of the pyrrolidone side group and the subsequent decomposition of polyenic sequences. © 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: A study of cure of an epoxy resin based on trimethilolpropane (TMP) used as supplied and in purified form and m-xylylenediamine (m-XDA), as curing agent has been carried out. Thermodynamic functions such as activation energy, activation entropy, activation enthalpy, and free energy of activation were determinated. From kinetic study we have observed that there are two competitive mechanisms; autocatalyzed and n order, with the values of activation energy ranging between 52.9 and 64.6 kJ/mol. The overall order of reaction is found to be 2.5, and the order of reaction with respect to the hydroxyl group is clearly determined and equal to 1. Gelation study was carried out under two conditions: isothermal and adiabatic. From isothermal study we obtained the values of functionality of the resins (approximately two) and the apparent activation energy of the process. The adiabatic study allowed us the determination of the pot-life taking into account the theoretical model used, with reasonable theoretical/experimental agreements. The importance of n-order path for this kind of resins (with high OH contents) is well demonstrated through kinetic and thermodynamic parameters. The thermodynamic functions showed themselves as very sensitive parameters for the following and evolution of the reaction. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The curing reaction of bisphenol A epoxy resin has been widely studied. We have found that when initial reactants are highly pure the reaction epoxy resin/m-xylylenediamine follows a predominantly autocatalytic path independent of the temperature. The purpose of this study was to discern if the kinetic model is appliable at high values of amine/epoxy equivalent ratio. Because of the nature and reactivity of m-xylylenediamine (m-XDA), the studies were carried out at low temperatures. Also, in order to obtain information about the formation mechanism of the system, different parameters such as reaction orders, activation energies, and reaction rate variation with concentration have been studied at different (1.5 : 1, 2 : 1, and 3 : 1) amine/epoxy equivalent ratios. © 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Different isolated or competitive mechanisms have been experimentally observed in order to predict the kinetics of an epoxy - amine reaction in terms of various mathematical models based on different possibilities of reaction. Impurities such as water, glycols, and in general all donors of active hydrogen even at low concentrations significantly change the course of the reaction. We therefore decided to study the curing reaction of the epoxy resin, first as a commercial product and later purified, with m-xylylenediamine of known purity. The extent of cure has been followed and determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Purity, epoxy content and OH content were measured by liquid chromatography HPLC and wet analysis.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The chemical structure of an aliphatic epoxy resin was studied by using gel permeation chromatography (GPC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), FTIR-TGA (thermogravimetric analysis), mass spectrometry in fast atom bombardment (FAB) mode, and wet analysis. We found that when trimethylolpropane is used as starting monomer, only two OH groups are epoxidized. The resin and its different fractions have a functionality of two. Under the conditions of synthesis used by the supplier, three main products were found with masses of 246,339, and 430. No trifunctional product was detected. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-04-20
    Description: We have determined the three-dimensional P-wave velocity structure of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Iberia–Africa collision zone using local earthquake tomography. We have inverted arrival times of first-arriving P phases listed in the bulletins of the Instituto Geográfico Nacional and phases picked by us on permanent stations of other regional networks and on temporary broadband stations deployed in the frame of the TOPO-IBERIA project. In total we have used 38,624 P-wave arrival times from 2362 local events recorded at 120 seismic stations. The most remarkable result is the imaging of a large high velocity body following approximately the western Alboran coastline, with a horizontal dimension of at least 200 km and extending in depth from the surface down to 24 km. This body, not imaged previously with this extent using seismic tomography, coincides with surface exposures of subcontinental mantle (peridotites) in Iberia and Africa and with a belt of positive gravity anomalies. We have also found a marked contrast in the seismic velocities of the middle and lower crust of the Alboran basin, coinciding with the location of the Trans-Alboran Shear Zone. We attribute this contrast to widespread magmatic intrusions in the eastern part of the basin, resulting in higher P-wave velocities than in the west. This contrast would also explain the different orientation of the Trans-Alboran Shear zone with respect to the surface features and faults in the Alboran basin. We also image thick crust beneath the Betics and Rif, accompanied by downgoing lithosphere of the Iberian foreland and Gulf of Cadiz beneath the Betic–Rif–Alboran system.
    Keywords: ddc:550
    Language: English
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • 9
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    In:  Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America ; Year: 2010 ; Volume: 100 ; Issue: 2 ; Pages: 618-628
    Publication Date: 2018-05-02
    Keywords: ddc:550
    Language: English
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-04-25
    Description: New tomographic images of the upper mantle beneath the westernmost Mediterranean suggest that the evolution of the region experienced two subduction-related episodes. First subduction of oceanic and/or extended continental lithosphere, now located mainly beneath the Betics at depths greater than 400 km, took place on a NW–SE oriented subduction zone. This was followed by a slab-tear process that initiated in the east and propagated to the west, leading to westward slab rollback and possibly lower crustal delamination. The current position of the slab tear is located approximately at 4°W, and to the west of this location the subducted lithosphere is still attached to the surface along the Gibraltar Arc. Our new P-wave velocity model is able to image the attached subducted lithosphere as a narrow high-velocity body extending to shallow depths, coinciding with the region of maximum curvature of the Gibraltar Arc, the occurrence of intermediate-depth earthquakes, and anomalously thick crust. This thick crust has a large influence in the measured teleseismic travel time residuals and therefore in the obtained P-wave tomographic model. We show that removing the effects of the thick crust significantly improves the shallow images of the slab and therefore the interpretations based on the seismic structure.
    Keywords: ddc:550
    Language: English
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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