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  • ddc:330  (107)
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  • 1
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-07-17
    Description: Using Baccalaureate and Beyond data, I study whether university quality, both absolute and relative to other universities in the region, affects earnings one and ten years after graduation, controlling for the individual's SAT score. One year after graduation, high SAT score students earn 12% less if their university's regional rank is worse by 35 places, conditional on absolute university quality. This effect disappears ten years after graduation. The results suggest initial job quality does not have long-run career effects. The results also confirm the initial importance of a university's regional rank, an often overlooked dimension of university quality.
    Keywords: I23 ; I26 ; J31 ; D83 ; ddc:330 ; labor market return to higher education ; employer learning ; statistical discrimination
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Dublin: The Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI)
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: This article examines the impact of a large increase in female participation on occupational segregation. Increases in female participation may decrease occupational segregation if women enter male dominated sectors but may increase segregation if they enter already female dominated sectors. Using Ireland as a test case due to the recent large increase in female participation rates, we firstly carry out a decomposition analysis between 1991 and 2006 and find that the rise in female employment was driven predominantly by increased demand while between one tenth and one fifth of the rise was due to women increasing their share of occupational employment. Formal measures of segregation show that occupational segregation fell over this time period. The formal measures of segregation show that the level of occupational grouping is important with stagnation or smaller falls in segregation using a broad occupational grouping and sharper falls using a more detailed occupational grouping. Our findings support previous U.S. research that found a rise in female participation resulted in a decline in occupational segregation.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; gender ; labour market ; occupational segregation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-07-17
    Description: This paper analyzes labor market matching in the presence of search and informational frictions, by studying employer recruiting on college campuses. Based on employer and university interviews, I develop a model describing how firms choose target campuses given relevant frictions. The model predicts that with screening costs, the decision to recruit and the wage are driven by the selectivity of surrounding universities, in addition to the university's selectivity. The prediction has strong support using data from 39 finance and consulting firms and the Baccalaureate and Beyond. Structural estimation of an equilibrium model directly quantifies the impact of reducing screening costs.
    Keywords: J23 ; J31 ; D83 ; I26 ; M51 ; ddc:330 ; labor market search ; employer recruiting ; return to university education ; screening costs
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: In this paper, using Ireland, where debt issues are of particular salience as a test case, we seek to understand the extent to which the measures currently employed as national indicators of poverty and social exclusion succeed in capturing over-indebtedness and, more broadly, severity of debt problems. Our analysis reveals a clear gradient with predictive ability increasing sharply as one moves from 'at risk of poverty' to consistent poverty and finally economic vulnerability indicators. In relation to debt problems, the key distinction is between the just under one in five households defined as economically vulnerable and all others. Financial exclusion, relating to access to a bank account and a credit card, was found to increase debt levels. However, such effects were modest. The impact of economic vulnerability seems to be largely a consequence of its relationship to a wide range of socio-economic attributes and circumstances. The manner in which a potential debt crisis unfolds will be shaped by the broader socio-economic structuring of life-chances. Any attempt to respond to such problems by concentrating on household behaviour or, indeed, triggering factors without taking the wider social structuring of economic vulnerability is likely to be both seriously misguided and largely ineffective.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; poverty ; economic vulnerability ; over-indebtedness ; severity of debt ; financial exclusion ; Private Verschuldung ; Soziale Lage ; Armut ; Irland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: Recent rapid economic growth in Ireland has been accompanied by a strong surge in the number of women in employment, and this has led to a significant increase in the proportion of dual-earner families. These changes have brought the issue of reconciliation between work and care commitments to the fore. Flexible working arrangements in firms have been identified as one important means of balancing work and other commitments (Evans 2001). In this paper we investigate the relationship between four flexible working arrangements - flexi-time, part-time hours, working from home and job-share - and two key employee outcomes - work pressure and work-life conflict, using data from the first national survey of employees in Ireland in 2003. Our results show that while part-time work and flexi-time tend to reduce work pressure and work-life conflict, working from home is associated with greater levels of both work pressure and work-life conflict. We conclude that it is important to distinguish between flexible working arrangements to discover their potential for reducing work pressure and work-life conflict.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; work-life balance ; flexible working arrangements ; gender ; work stress ; work pressure ; Weibliche Arbeitskräfte ; Arbeitsbedingungen ; Stress ; Arbeitsmarktflexibilität ; Familie ; Beruf ; Geschlecht ; Irland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    Davis, CA: University of California, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Close to half the California school districts let teachers choose whether to receive their salaries ten monthly payments or in twelve. Fisherine intertemporal maximization implies that they should choose ten payments and earn interest on their savings for their summer. But about half choose twelve installments , even though when summed over a reasonable period the foregone interest is considerable. This can be explained by the cost of exercising self control and by Laibson’s model of hyperbolic discounting. A survey of teachers supports this interpretation.
    Keywords: D91 ; D12 ; ddc:330 ; Self Control ; Intertemporal Utility Maximization ; Zeitpräferenz ; Lohn ; Intertemporale Einkommensverteilung ; Lehrkräfte ; Abzinsung ; Kalifornien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-07-17
    Description: I study whether human capital investments are based on local rather than national demand, and whether this is explained by migration or information frictions. I analyze three sector-specific shocks with differential local effects, including the dot-com crash, the 2008 financial crisis, and a shock transforming Delaware into an international financial center. I find universities in areas more exposed to sectoral shocks experience greater changes in sector-relevant majors. Using rich student-level data, I find this is not explained by information frictions, but more likely by migration frictions. The results suggest encouraging human capital investments based on national demand may increase mismatch.
    Keywords: J24 ; I20 ; R12 ; ddc:330 ; college major choice ; local labor markets ; migration frictions ; information frictions
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-07-17
    Description: I analyze whether reducing geographic distance to high-wage jobs increases access to those employment opportunities. I collect office locations and campus recruiting strategies for over 70 prestigious banking and consulting firms, from 2000 to 2013. Using an event-study framework, I find firms are 2 times more likely to recruit at local universities after opening a nearby office, and 6 times more likely outside industry clusters. New target campuses outside industry clusters are less academically selective. The results suggest place-based policies may improve access to high-wage firms, and also suggest the importance of a university's local labor market for post-graduation outcomes.
    Keywords: J23 ; J61 ; I26 ; ddc:330 ; employer recruiting ; local labor markets ; returns to college
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2018-06-25
    Description: Value of Statistical Life (VSL) studies suggest that people's willingness to pay for statistical lives is consistent with their willingness to pay for identified lives. The idea that the valuations are different may be no more than an artifact of the economic method for valuing statistical lives, the human capital approach, that was dominant at the time the distinction was proposed.
    Keywords: D6 ; I1 ; H4 ; ddc:330 ; Value of Statistical Life ; Identified Lives
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2018-06-25
    Description: Despite spending far more on medical care, Americans live shorter lives than the citizens of other high-income countries. The situation has been getting worse for at least three decades. This paper describes the main scientific methods for guiding the allocation of resources to health - cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) and cost-benefit analysis (CBA), sketches their methodological progress over the last several decades, and presents examples of how medical practice in other high-income countries, where people live longer, follows the priorities indicated by cost-effectiveness analysis. CEA and CBA support democratic decision-making processes, which have themselves benefited from scientific inquiry; these are touched on at the end of the paper.
    Keywords: H4 ; I1 ; D61 ; ddc:330 ; cost-effectiveness analysis ; cost-benefit analysis
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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