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  • Articles  (301)
  • ddc:330  (301)
  • J24  (15)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-05-22
    Description: Global climate change presents long-term risks to agriculture. In general, global climate change is expected to positively affect Russian agriculture. In high and middle latitudes, global warming would expand the growing season. Acreages of agricultural crops may expand toward the north, although yields would likely be lower due to less fertile soil. However, in the south there is a possibility of drier climate, which has a negative impact on crop yields and livestock productivity. In addition, climate change is expected to increase the scarcity of water resources and encourage weed and pest proliferation, and it is expected to increase the short-term risks associated with an increase in extreme weather events and natural disasters. This paper uses data on current conditions to simulate future scenarios and examine possible impacts on crop production in the Russian Federation. It also considers adaptive measures for agriculture in response to climate change.
    Keywords: Q17 ; Q18 ; Q24 ; Q25 ; Q54 ; ddc:330 ; climate change ; agriculture ; food security ; IMPACT model
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Prague: Charles University in Prague, Institute of Economic Studies (IES)
    Publication Date: 2013-10-01
    Description: In this paper we examine the effects that variations in the quality of the environment at birth have on children's other-regarding preferences, as measured through four binary-choice dictator games run with school-age children in rural Sierra Leone. We examine the effect of exogenous variations in rainfall level by location and year on children's social preferences. We also study how age at which children had access to improved water sources, such as protected wells, correlates with preferences. Children born within a healthier environment are more generous, when generosity comes at no personal cost, more likely to choose socially efficient allocations and less averse to advantageous inequality. The correlation between rainfall shocks at birth and children's height-for-age suggest that environmental quality affects preferences through its impact on health. We find that proxies for early childhood health affect experimental outcomes in a similar way as age, which helps to explain the process by which individuals develop social preferences. No significant relationship is found in our data between environmental quality and educational outcomes, such as school attendance and grades.
    Keywords: C93 ; I15 ; D64 ; ddc:330 ; Field experiments ; Health and Economic Development ; Altruism ; Inequality Aversion
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 3
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    München: Sonderforschungsbereich/Transregio 15 Governance and the Efficiency of Economic Systems
    Publication Date: 2014-03-22
    Description: In this paper, we investigate whether French consumers have modified their preferences towards environmentally-friendly vehicles between 2003 and 2008. We estimate a model of demand for automobiles incorporating both consumers' heterogeneity and CO2 emissions of the vehicles. Our results show that there has been a shift in preferences towards low-emitting cars, with an average increase of 367 euros of the willingness to pay for a reduction of 10 grams of carbon dioxide per kilometer. We also stress a large heterogeneity in the evolution of preferences between consumers. Rich and young people are more sensitive to environmental issues, and our results are in line with votes for the green party at the presidential elections. We relate these changes with two environmental policies that were introduced at these times, namely the obligation of indicating energy labels by the end of 2005 and a feebate based on CO2 emissions of new vehicles in 2008. Our results suggest that such policies have been efficient tools to shift consumers utility towards environmentally-friendly goods, the shift in preferences accounting for 20% of the overall decrease in average CO2 emissions of new cars on the period.
    Keywords: D12 ; H23 ; L62 ; Q51 ; ddc:330 ; environmental policy ; consumers' preferences ; CO2 emissions ; automobiles
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-04-04
    Description: We employ a comprehensive data set and a variety of methods to provide evidence on the magnitude of large banks' funding advantage in Canada, and on the extent to which market discipline exists across different securities issued by the Canadian banks. The banking sector in Canada provides a unique setting in which to examine market discipline along with the prospects of proposed reforms, because Canada has no history of government bailouts. Our results suggest that large banks likely have a funding advantage over small banks after controlling for bank-specific and market risk factors. Working with hand-collected market data on debt issues by large banks, we also find that market discipline exists for subordinated debt and not for senior debt.
    Keywords: G01 ; G21 ; G28 ; G32 ; G33 ; ddc:330 ; Financial institutions ; Interest rates
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    London: Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS)
    Publication Date: 2014-09-08
    Description: Currently there is no established way to measure expenditure in the context of a general purpose survey. Therefore NatCen's Questionnaire Development Testing (QDT) Hub, working in collaboration with the Institute for Fiscal Studies and collaborators from Oxford and Cambridge Universities, are looking at how best to measure expenditure in a social survey context. This report provides findings from the cognitive testing of four different question formats: 1. A 'one-shot' question i.e. a single question asking 'How much did you spend on everything in the last month?' 2. A 'two-part' question i.e. two questions, one that asks about spending on essentials and one that asks about spending on everything else. 3. A 'breakdown' question i.e. that asks respondents to say how much they spend on each item on a list of common types of expenditure 4. And 'income minus surplus' question that asks respondents to work out how much money they receive per month and how much of that income remains unspent. It is possible that spending can be calculated from this information. This project is funded by the Nuffield Foundation.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    Ottawa: Bank of Canada
    Publication Date: 2011-12-16
    Description: Trades in foreign exchange markets are initiated around the world and around the clock. This study illustrates that trades are more informative when initiated in a local country or in major foreign exchange centers like London and New York. Evidence suggests that informational asymmetries based on geography arise from the market making capacity of dealers and the customer order flow that dealers capture during regional business hours. Findings also show that market orders initiated in price-correlated FX markets are not informative. Transparency in quotes on electronic trading platforms may prevent informed participants from exploiting information across FX markets. Overall, these results are robust across different market conditions.
    Keywords: F31 ; G15 ; ddc:330 ; Market structure and pricing ; Exchange rates ; Financial markets ; Devisenhandel ; Devisenmarkt ; Wechselkurs ; Asymmetrische Information ; Welt
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2013-11-13
    Description: We apply the theory of inequality in opportunity to measure inequity in mortality. Ourempirical work is based on a rich dataset for the Netherlands (1998-2007), linking informationabout mortality, health events and lifestyles. We show that distinguishing between differentchannels via which mortality is affected is necessary to test the sensitivity of the results withrespect to different normative positions. Moreover, our model allows for a comparison of theinequity in simulated counterfactual situations, including an evaluation of policy measures.We explicitly make a distinction between inequity in mortality risks and inequity in mortalityoutcomes. The treatment of this difference - “luck”- has a crucial in‡uence on the results.
    Keywords: D63 ; I12 ; I14 ; ddc:330 ; equity ; equality of opportunities ; mortality ; lifestyles ; Sterblichkeit ; Soziale Ungleichheit ; Lifestyle ; Niederlande
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-12-16
    Description: Differences in market structures may affect the manner in which fundamental information is incorporated into prices. High levels of quote and trade transparency plus substantial quoting obligations in European government securities markets ensure that prices are informationally efficient. The relationship between price changes, order flow, relative depth and spreads across European and Canadian short-term government bond markets is examined via a reduced-form vector autoregression model. In European markets, dealers are able to quickly absorb private information elsewhere in the market. Consequently, spreads and the relative depth on the bid and offer sides of the market are found to be only slightly informative. Similarly, order flow, which reflects inventory management practices in addition to private information, explains a smaller proportion of the variation in asset returns in European markets than in Canadian interdealer brokered markets where no quoting obligations exist.
    Keywords: G12 ; G14 ; G15 ; ddc:330 ; Market structure and pricing ; Financial markets ; Interest rates ; Finanzmarkt ; Marktstruktur ; Öffentliche Anleihe ; Zins ; VAR-Modell ; EU-Staaten ; Kanada
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-03-05
    Description: We define and experimentally test a public provision mechanism that meets three basic ethical requirements and allows community members to influence, via monetary bids, which of several projects is implemented. For each project, participants are assigned personal values, which can be positive or negative. We provide either complete or only private information about others' personal values. This produces two distinct public provision games which are experimentally implemented and analysed for various projects. In spite of the complex experimental task, participants do not rely on truth-telling as an obvious and simple heuristic whose general acceptance would result in fair and efficient outcomes. Rather, they yield to strategic underbidding. Although underbidding is affected by projects' characteristics, the provision mechanism seems quite functional.
    Keywords: C91 ; C72 ; D63 ; ddc:330 ; Public Provision ; Procedural Fairness ; Experiment ; Öffentliches Gut ; Spieltheorie ; Gerechtigkeit ; Gemeinschaft ; Projektbewertung ; Test
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    London: Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS)
    Publication Date: 2014-09-08
    Description: The Nuffield Foundation has funded a collaborative research team from NatCen Social Research, the Institute for Fiscal Studies and Oxford and Cambridge Universities to develop a standard question or questions designed to capture household spending. This is because household spending can be an indicator of household living standards and can overcome some of the limitations of income as an indicator of living standards. The project has involved conducting focus groups with people from a range of household types to explore how people thing and talk about household spending. New questions were then designed, base on existing questions but adapted to reflect the findings of the focus groups, for example that using the term household in questions about spending can be confusing. Following a reveiw of the new questions by the steering group, a round of cognitive testing was then carried out to test these questions. Key findings from round one are presented in section 1.1.2. Following the first round of cognitive testing further adaptations were made to the questions. A second round of cognitive testing was carried out to re-test the question formats which seemed most worth developing further. Additional testing was needed as a result of changes to these questions and to ensure respondents with a range of financial situations were included. This report presents the findings of this second round of cognitive testing.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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