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  • GEOPHYSICS  (163)
  • ddc:330  (35)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-04-04
    Description: Although the working poor are a much larger population than the unemployed poor, American poverty research has devoted much more attention to joblessness than to working poverty. Research that does exist on working poverty concentrates on demographics and economic performance and neglects institutions. Building on literatures on comparative institutions, unionization, and states as polities, we examine the influence of a potentially important labor market institution for working poverty: the level of unionization in a state. Using the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) for the U.S., we estimate: a) multi-level logit models of poverty among employed households in 2010; and b) two-way fixed effects models of working poverty across seven waves of data from 1991 to 2010. Further, we replicate the analyses with the Current Population Survey while controlling for household unionization, and assess unionization's potential influence on selection into employment. Across all models, state-level unionization is robustly significantly negative for working poverty. The effects of unionization are larger than the effects of states' economic performance and social policies. Further, unionization reduces working poverty for both unionized and non-union households and does not appear to discourage employment. We conclude that American poverty research can advance by devoting greater attention to working poverty, and by incorporating insights from the comparative literature on institutions.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-03-01
    Description: There is limited information on whether integrating childhood interventions with health and nutrition services interventions is effective and feasible. In this trial we used group delivery at five routine visits from age 3-18 months, and comprised: short films of child development messages, shown in the waiting area; discussion and demonstration led by community health workers; and mothers' practice of activities. Nurses gave out and reviewed message cards with mothers, together with a few play materials. A cluster randomized trial was conducted in the Caribbean (Jamaica, Antigua and St Lucia) in 29 health centers. Centers were randomized to control (n=15) or health center intervention (n=14). We also adapted the Jamaica home visit intervention to increase feasibility at scale. Primary outcomes were child cognition, language and hand-eye coordination, and secondary outcomes caregiver knowledge, practices, maternal depression, and child growth, measured after the 18 month visit. Multilevel analyses comparing health center only with control in all 3 countries showed significant benefits for cognitive development from the health center intervention with effect size of 0.3 SD and benefits to parenting knowledge with effect size 0·4. In analyses of the two interventions in Jamaica, both benefited cognitive development with effect sizes of 0.34 SD (home visit) and 0.38 SD (health center). The most conservative analyses found benefit cost ratios of 5.3 for the health center intervention and 3.8 for home visits. Integrating parenting interventions into health services has the potential to reach a large number of children with benefits substantially higher than required investments.
    Keywords: I10 ; I15 ; I30 ; I38 ; J13 ; ddc:330 ; child development ; parenting interventions ; home visits ; primary care health service ; cost-benefit ; Caribbean
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-23
    Description: When the zero lower bound on nominal interest rate binds, monetary policy makers may lack traditional tools to stimulate aggregate demand. We investigate whether "unconventional" fiscal policy, in the form of pre-announced consumption tax changes, has the potential to meaningfully shift durables purchases intertemporally and how it is affected by consumer credit. In particular, we test whether car sales react in anticipation of future sales tax changes, leveraging 57 pre-announced changes in state sales tax rates from 1999-2017. We find evidence for substantial tax elasticities, with car sales rising by over 8% in the month before a 1% increase in the sales tax rate. Responses are heterogeneous across households and sensitive to supply of credit. Consumers with high credit risk scores are most able to pull purchases forward. At the same time, other effects such as customer composition and attention lead to an even larger tax elasticity during recessions, despite these credit frictions. We discuss policy implications and the likely magnitudes of tax changes necessary for any substantive long-term responses.
    Keywords: D12 ; E21 ; G01 ; G11 ; H31 ; ddc:330 ; counter-cyclical fiscal policy ; credit market frictions ; consumer durables
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
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    Wellington: New Zealand Institute of Economic Research (NZIER)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: Political pressures and concerns about 'unfair' trade provide the main rationale for retaining broad anti-dumping provisions in most countries. Almost one hundred years ago, New Zealand was the second country in the world to introduce anti-dumping legislation. Since then New Zealand’s anti-dumping policy and legislation have changed significantly in response to both internal and external pressures. The key issues over the years have remained essentially the same. To what extent should domestic producers be protected from the effects of dumping? To what extent should the interests of other groups, such as consumers and downstream industries, be taken into account? There is a natural tension between the first issue - protection of the private interests of producers - and the second - the public or national interest. The issues of protectionism and the public interest are at the centre of the debate about anti-dumping. The political factors influencing anti-dumping policy are this study’s main focus. The study examines the history of anti-dumping policy in New Zealand, how and why it has been justified and what has shaped it. The study shows that the anti-dumping debate involves the concentrated and organised interests of import-competing industries and their employees, who benefit directly from the protection provided by anti-dumping duties, and other interest groups who bear the more or less widespread costs of anti-dumping action, such as consumers and downstream industries. Manufacturing industries have been able to place significant pressure on governments to retain strong anti-dumping provisions, particularly as other general forms of protection have been removed or reduced and New Zealand has entered into bilateral free trade agreements. Despite this pressure, governments and officials have remained intent on ensuring that anti-dumping does not replace general protection and anti-dumping on trans-Tasman trade was removed in the interests of competition. Recent proposals that competition and wider interests should be considered before taking anti-dumping action have met strong resistance from manufacturers, with pressure from importers, consumers and downstream industries remaining either limited or absent.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Antidumping ; Protektionismus ; Neuseeland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    Luxembourg: Luxembourg Income Study (LIS)
    Publication Date: 2015-09-29
    Description: Marriage and work have long been central to debates regarding poverty and the family. Although ample research demonstrate their negative association with child poverty, both marriage and work have undergone major transformations over recent decades. Consequently, it is plausible that their association with child poverty may have also changed. Using ten waves of U.S. Census Current Population Survey data from the Luxembourg Income Study, this study examined the relationships between marriage, work, and relative measures of child poverty from 1974-2010. Results indicated both marriage and work still decrease the odds of child poverty. However, time interactions showed marriage's negative association with child poverty has declined in magnitude, whereas work's negative association with child poverty has increased in magnitude. These findings underscore the historically-varying influence of demographic characteristics for poverty. They also suggest the limitations of overemphasizing marriage and the growing importance of work for reducing child poverty in America.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-11-29
    Description: We explore the relation between historical population density in former colonies and modern income distribution. A theoretical model highlights the potentially opposing effects of native population density on incentives for colonists to conquer or settle in new territories. While an abundant supply of native labor is an “asset” that drives up land rents, it is also a “liability” that makes land acquisition by colonists more difficult and reduces returns to peacable migration. Conflicts over land, sowing the seeds for inequality by creating a landed élite living off rents, are especially likely to emerge for intermediate native population densities. Results are confirmed by detailed empirical tests highlighting the curvilinear relationship between native population density and modern income inequality. Finally, using population density as an instrument for inequality in the former colonies, we demonstrate that there is no causal relationship running from income distribution to economic growth.
    Keywords: O15 ; N30 ; N50 ; ddc:330 ; inequality ; growth ; factor endowments ; population density ; conflict ; colonization ; Bevölkerungsdichte ; Indigene Völker ; Kolonialismus ; Einkommensverteilung ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Welt
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-01-16
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    Louvain-la-Neuve: European Regional Science Association (ERSA)
    Publication Date: 2015-09-02
    Description: The mathematical analysis of the Internet and World Wide Web (WWW) is distinctly aspatial at present, with the transaction flows defined specifically by time-dependent indices (such as, the Internet Weather Report). How should the Internet and WWW be viewed as a geographical system where both space and time are fundamental to interaction? The retail aggregate space-time (RASTT) model has been developed previously to study trips to and from shopping malls and this model may provide some insights into the framing of this question. The RASTT model can be developed from a time-dependent random walk from an ensemble of home-based computers sending and receiving transactions through a network of sites. The spatial solution forms very weak gravity interactions and the time-dependent solutions are demand waves circumnavigating the Earth. Recent experimental results from Microsoft Research support these conclusions. These flows have the interesting property of moving either forwards or backwards through regions of time relative to the rotation of the Earth. The model can be developed to show bias in flows to USA sites and by using similarity arguments, the transaction demand wave across the USA can be derived by using a power law assumption of network connectivity.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
    Publication Date: 2018-05-29
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2015-04-01
    Description: This study estimates the implicit prices of indigenous sheep traits based on revealed preferences. A hedonic pricing model is fitted to examine the determinants of observed sheep prices. Transaction data were generated from rural markets of Horro-Guduru Wollega Zone of Ethiopia. Both OLS and heteroscedasticity consistent estimations were made. The empirical results consistently indicate that phenotypic traits of traded indigenous sheep (age, color, body size, and tail condition) are major determinants of price implying the importance of trait preferences in determining the price of sheep in local markets. Season and market locations are also very important price determinants suggesting the need to target season and market place in sheep improvement programmes. Therefore, the development of a comprehensive breeding program that has marketing element is crucial to make sheep improvement sustainable and sheep keepers benefit from the intervention.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Hedonic pricing ; Heteroscedasticity consistent ; Phenotypic ; Indigenous ; Trait preference
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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