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  • ddc:330  (305)
  • E31  (21)
  • Astronomy  (15)
  • J24  (15)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-05-22
    Description: Global climate change presents long-term risks to agriculture. In general, global climate change is expected to positively affect Russian agriculture. In high and middle latitudes, global warming would expand the growing season. Acreages of agricultural crops may expand toward the north, although yields would likely be lower due to less fertile soil. However, in the south there is a possibility of drier climate, which has a negative impact on crop yields and livestock productivity. In addition, climate change is expected to increase the scarcity of water resources and encourage weed and pest proliferation, and it is expected to increase the short-term risks associated with an increase in extreme weather events and natural disasters. This paper uses data on current conditions to simulate future scenarios and examine possible impacts on crop production in the Russian Federation. It also considers adaptive measures for agriculture in response to climate change.
    Keywords: Q17 ; Q18 ; Q24 ; Q25 ; Q54 ; ddc:330 ; climate change ; agriculture ; food security ; IMPACT model
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Prague: Charles University in Prague, Institute of Economic Studies (IES)
    Publication Date: 2013-10-01
    Description: In this paper we examine the effects that variations in the quality of the environment at birth have on children's other-regarding preferences, as measured through four binary-choice dictator games run with school-age children in rural Sierra Leone. We examine the effect of exogenous variations in rainfall level by location and year on children's social preferences. We also study how age at which children had access to improved water sources, such as protected wells, correlates with preferences. Children born within a healthier environment are more generous, when generosity comes at no personal cost, more likely to choose socially efficient allocations and less averse to advantageous inequality. The correlation between rainfall shocks at birth and children's height-for-age suggest that environmental quality affects preferences through its impact on health. We find that proxies for early childhood health affect experimental outcomes in a similar way as age, which helps to explain the process by which individuals develop social preferences. No significant relationship is found in our data between environmental quality and educational outcomes, such as school attendance and grades.
    Keywords: C93 ; I15 ; D64 ; ddc:330 ; Field experiments ; Health and Economic Development ; Altruism ; Inequality Aversion
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-04-04
    Description: We employ a comprehensive data set and a variety of methods to provide evidence on the magnitude of large banks' funding advantage in Canada, and on the extent to which market discipline exists across different securities issued by the Canadian banks. The banking sector in Canada provides a unique setting in which to examine market discipline along with the prospects of proposed reforms, because Canada has no history of government bailouts. Our results suggest that large banks likely have a funding advantage over small banks after controlling for bank-specific and market risk factors. Working with hand-collected market data on debt issues by large banks, we also find that market discipline exists for subordinated debt and not for senior debt.
    Keywords: G01 ; G21 ; G28 ; G32 ; G33 ; ddc:330 ; Financial institutions ; Interest rates
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
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    London: Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS)
    Publication Date: 2014-09-08
    Description: Currently there is no established way to measure expenditure in the context of a general purpose survey. Therefore NatCen's Questionnaire Development Testing (QDT) Hub, working in collaboration with the Institute for Fiscal Studies and collaborators from Oxford and Cambridge Universities, are looking at how best to measure expenditure in a social survey context. This report provides findings from the cognitive testing of four different question formats: 1. A 'one-shot' question i.e. a single question asking 'How much did you spend on everything in the last month?' 2. A 'two-part' question i.e. two questions, one that asks about spending on essentials and one that asks about spending on everything else. 3. A 'breakdown' question i.e. that asks respondents to say how much they spend on each item on a list of common types of expenditure 4. And 'income minus surplus' question that asks respondents to work out how much money they receive per month and how much of that income remains unspent. It is possible that spending can be calculated from this information. This project is funded by the Nuffield Foundation.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    Ottawa: Bank of Canada
    Publication Date: 2011-12-16
    Description: Trades in foreign exchange markets are initiated around the world and around the clock. This study illustrates that trades are more informative when initiated in a local country or in major foreign exchange centers like London and New York. Evidence suggests that informational asymmetries based on geography arise from the market making capacity of dealers and the customer order flow that dealers capture during regional business hours. Findings also show that market orders initiated in price-correlated FX markets are not informative. Transparency in quotes on electronic trading platforms may prevent informed participants from exploiting information across FX markets. Overall, these results are robust across different market conditions.
    Keywords: F31 ; G15 ; ddc:330 ; Market structure and pricing ; Exchange rates ; Financial markets ; Devisenhandel ; Devisenmarkt ; Wechselkurs ; Asymmetrische Information ; Welt
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2013-11-13
    Description: We apply the theory of inequality in opportunity to measure inequity in mortality. Ourempirical work is based on a rich dataset for the Netherlands (1998-2007), linking informationabout mortality, health events and lifestyles. We show that distinguishing between differentchannels via which mortality is affected is necessary to test the sensitivity of the results withrespect to different normative positions. Moreover, our model allows for a comparison of theinequity in simulated counterfactual situations, including an evaluation of policy measures.We explicitly make a distinction between inequity in mortality risks and inequity in mortalityoutcomes. The treatment of this difference - “luck”- has a crucial in‡uence on the results.
    Keywords: D63 ; I12 ; I14 ; ddc:330 ; equity ; equality of opportunities ; mortality ; lifestyles ; Sterblichkeit ; Soziale Ungleichheit ; Lifestyle ; Niederlande
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-12-16
    Description: Differences in market structures may affect the manner in which fundamental information is incorporated into prices. High levels of quote and trade transparency plus substantial quoting obligations in European government securities markets ensure that prices are informationally efficient. The relationship between price changes, order flow, relative depth and spreads across European and Canadian short-term government bond markets is examined via a reduced-form vector autoregression model. In European markets, dealers are able to quickly absorb private information elsewhere in the market. Consequently, spreads and the relative depth on the bid and offer sides of the market are found to be only slightly informative. Similarly, order flow, which reflects inventory management practices in addition to private information, explains a smaller proportion of the variation in asset returns in European markets than in Canadian interdealer brokered markets where no quoting obligations exist.
    Keywords: G12 ; G14 ; G15 ; ddc:330 ; Market structure and pricing ; Financial markets ; Interest rates ; Finanzmarkt ; Marktstruktur ; Öffentliche Anleihe ; Zins ; VAR-Modell ; EU-Staaten ; Kanada
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    London: Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS)
    Publication Date: 2014-09-08
    Description: The Nuffield Foundation has funded a collaborative research team from NatCen Social Research, the Institute for Fiscal Studies and Oxford and Cambridge Universities to develop a standard question or questions designed to capture household spending. This is because household spending can be an indicator of household living standards and can overcome some of the limitations of income as an indicator of living standards. The project has involved conducting focus groups with people from a range of household types to explore how people thing and talk about household spending. New questions were then designed, base on existing questions but adapted to reflect the findings of the focus groups, for example that using the term household in questions about spending can be confusing. Following a reveiw of the new questions by the steering group, a round of cognitive testing was then carried out to test these questions. Key findings from round one are presented in section 1.1.2. Following the first round of cognitive testing further adaptations were made to the questions. A second round of cognitive testing was carried out to re-test the question formats which seemed most worth developing further. Additional testing was needed as a result of changes to these questions and to ensure respondents with a range of financial situations were included. This report presents the findings of this second round of cognitive testing.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    London: Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS)
    Publication Date: 2014-09-08
    Description: Currently there is no established way to measure expenditure in the context of a general purpose survey. Therefore NatCen's Questionnaire Development and Testing (QDT) Hub, working in collaboration with the Institute for Fiscal Studies and collaborators from Oxford and Cambridge Universities, are looking at how best to measure expenditure in a social survey context. This report provides findings from a series of focus groups investigating how people think about household expenditure and what issues people may have in reporting household expenditure in a social survey context. The information collected in the focus groups will be used as a starting point for designing new questions on household spending for use in future social surveys. Subsequent stages of work will include cognitively testing any new questions produced and consulting a panel of experts over the proposed questions. This project was funded by the Nuffield Foundation.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-05-22
    Description: Food security in China affects the livelihood and well-being of one-fifth of the world population. Climate change is now affecting agriculture and food production in every country of the world. Here the authors present the IMPACT model results on yield, production, and net trade of major crops (wheat, rice, and maize) in China, and on daily calorie availability as an overall indicator of food security under climate change scenarios and socio-economic pathways in 2050. The obtained results show that wheat, maize, and rice yields will increase by 17%, 45%, and 15%, alongside price increases of 60%, 100%, and 40%, respectively, during 2010-2050. Crop production is projected to increase by 23%, 70%, and 3% reaching 123, 240, and 125 million tons for wheat, maize, and rice, respectively, in 2050. The results also show that China will remain a major importer of maize at 20 million tons per year, but turn from a net importer of rice (5 million tons per year in 2010) to a net exporter in 2020 (5-9 million tons per year by 2050), while becoming a self-sufficient consumer of wheat by 2050. The outcomes of calorie availability suggest that China will be able to maintain a level of at least 3,000 kilocalories per day through 2010-2050. Climate change has relatively little effect on calorie availability within a pathway scenario.The authors conclude that Chinese agriculture is relatively resilient to climate change. Chinese food security by 2050 will unlikely be compromised in the context of climate change. The major challenge to food security, however, will rise from increasing demand coupled with regional disparities in the adaptive capacity to climate change.
    Keywords: Q56 ; Q18 ; Q54 ; ddc:330 ; Climate change ; food security ; scenario ; adaptation ; mitigation ; policy
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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