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  • catchment export  (1)
  • constant initial concentration  (1)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0417
    Keywords: constant initial concentration ; constant rate of supply ; 210Pb dating ; sediments
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract We used sediment chronology data from fourteen published studies of lake cores across much of North America and Scandinavia in order to make a large scale comparison of the different dating techniques. The uncertainty of210Pb derived dates was determined using common sediment event markers: the stable Pb rise, the137Cs rise, and theAmbrosia pollen rise. For all data combined, the 95% confidence intervals for the stable Pb rise and theAmbrosia rise, were approximately 30 years. These 95% confidence intervals are slightly higher than those derived by First-Order Error analysis performed by others on210Pb derived dates. When comparing the concordance of two210Pb models (CRS and CIC) against markers of known history, we found that the CRS model dates (constant rate of supply) had consistently better agreement than the CIC model dates (constant initial concentration). Major discrepancies between137Cs and210Pb were common, but were consistently more severe in sediments of soft water lakes pointing to an inability of sediments with low mineral content to ‘immobilize’ Cs.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-515X
    Keywords: catchment export ; catchment retention ; metals ; sediments
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Although catchments have been implicated as an important source of metals to lakes, the catchment contribution of different metals is poorly known, and the anthropogenic contribution is not known at all. We determine the anthropogenic lake sediment burdens of Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, and Pb for several Quebec and Ontario lakes, not subject to point source loading, to obtain estimates of atmospheric loading and inputs from terrestrial sources. To do this, we first collected multiple cores across 11 lake basins to estimate the whole-lake Pb burdens. As the whole-lake Pb burdens did not differ among lakes that spanned over two orders of magnitude in drainage ratios (drainage basin area/lake area), we conclude that catchment retention of anthropogenic Pb is complete. The anthropogenic Pb burdens were then used as a correction for focusing for the other metals. Among the metals, Cr and Ni were the most readily exported from drainage basins, followed by Cu. Zn showed no increase with drainage ratio, indicating Zn to be effectively retained by catchments. The export coefficients of the Pb corrected metals correlate well with ocean residence time, revealing a similar metal sorption/precipitation sequence in both soils and oceans. Sediment metal burdens provide a relatively easy way to obtain not only metal export coefficients from drainage basins, but also the atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic metals (e.g. Pb: S.E. Quebec, 950 mg*m−2: Laurentians, north of Montreal, 420 mg*m−2). The export coefficients are not only simpler to obtain than by mass balance measurements, but, in addition, identify the anthropogenic component.
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