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  • Growth rate  (2)
  • calcium  (2)
  • Springer  (4)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: calmodulin ; calcium ; mineralisation ; tooth germ
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Summary Calmodulin, a calcium binding protein, has been implicated in the regulation of many calcium-dependent biological processes. Since calcium has an important role in hard tissue genesis, both at intra- and extracellular levels, we anticipate that calcium binding proteins may modulate this process. The present study investigated a mineralising tissue, the rat molar tooth germ, to determine the presence of calmodulin-like activity. A heat-treated cell-free extract of tooth germs provided enhancement of Ca2+-dependent Mg2+-ATPase and 3′:5′-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity. No enhancement occurred in the absence of calcium or in the presence of trifluoperazine. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of this extract revealed a protein band of approximately 18,000 mol. wt. These findings indicate the presence of calmodulin-like activity in rat molar tooth germs and support the proposal that calcium and calcium binding proteins, in particular calmodulin, have a major regulatory role in the biology of mineralising tissues.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: calcium ; plasma membrane ; root elongation ; salinity ; sodium
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract To gain a better understanding of the relations between root elongation and the amount of Ca2+ bound to the plasma membrane (PM), melon plants were grown in aerated solutions containing different concentrations of CaCl2 with various concentrations of NaCl or mannitol. With increasing external concentrations of NaCl or mannitol, root elongation was suppressed. Addition of CaCl2 to the external medium alleviated the inhibition of root elongation by high concentrations of Na+, but not of mannitol. Root elongation in media containing high concentrations of NaCl was correlated with the computed amount of Ca2+ bound to the PM. A model describing relative root elongation (RRL) under salt stress was developed. This model takes into account the osmotic potential in the growing solution (based on the mannitol experiments) and the computed amount of Ca2+ bound to the PM. Calcium binding was calculated by applying a Gouy-Chapman-Stern sorption model using the same parameters deduced from studies on PM vesicles. This model combines electrostatic theory with competitive binding at the PM surface. The model for RRL allowed the computation of a critical value for the fraction of negative sites binding Ca2+ on the PM needed for nearly optimal (95%) root elongation. Any decrease below this critical value decreased the RRL. Root elongation of Honey Dew (salt-resistant cv.) was greater than that of Eshkolit Ha'Amaqim (salt-sensitive cv.) under NaCl stress. Nearly optimal root growth for Honey Dew and Eshkolit Ha'Amaqim occurred when 40% and 51% of total membrane charged sites were bound by Ca2+, respectively. The effect of osmotic potential on the suppression of root elongation was the same for the two cultivars. To our knowledge, this report provides the first fully quantitative estimates of PM-bound Ca2+ relative to salt toxicity.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-5133
    Keywords: Amazonia ; Batoidea ; Brazil ; Captive breeding ; Chondrichthyes ; Colombia ; Elasmobranchii ; Freshwater adaptation ; Growth rate ; Potamotrygonidae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Synopsis Observations of reproductive features and body measurements were made on wild-caught, freshwater stingrays, Potamotrygon circularis and P. motoro, from the Amazon drainage of western Brazil and southern Colombia. Further observations were made in Detroit's Belle Isle Aquarium on a captive pair of P. motoro and their descendants, which constitute the first known captive breeding colony of potamotrygonids. The gross structure and function of female and male reproductive systems are described. There is no obvious difference between those of the two species. They are aplacentally viviparous, the young being nourished in advanced stages by uterine milk secreted by trophonemata. Size at onset and completion of sexual maturation, breeding season and behavior, gestation period, litter size and sex ratios are discussed. Up to 21 proportional measurements were made on several fetal and postnatal stages of both species. Several proportional changes occur in very early fetal life, but most body proportions undergo only minor changes from advanced fetal through adult stages. A growth curve is proposed for P. motoro based on observations of the captive colony.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-5133
    Keywords: Batoids ; Chondrichthyes ; Costa Rica ; Elasmobranchs ; Euryhalinity ; Freshwater adaptation ; Growth rate ; Isolation of population ; Nicaragua
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Synopsis Of a total of 377 Pristis perotteti tagged in the Lake Nicaragua-Río San Juan System, 214 (56.8% were recovered. Eighty were recovered at the original tagging site; four moved downstream the full length of the river; and 127 tagged at the source of the river were recovered in all parts of the lake. Only one was recovered in a different river system, 58 km down the coast from the main mouth of the Río San Juan. A life span of 30 years is suggested, with rapid growth (30–40 cm per year) in the first three years, slowing to about 4 or 5 cm per year in the later years of life. Maximum sizes collected were 384 cm for males, 429 cm for females, smaller than maximum lengths reported elsewhere. The lake sawfish are not physically landlocked, but individuals remain in fresh water for very long periods; parturition takes place in fresh water; all sizes are found in the lake; and it appears that this stock finds all of its ecological needs met in the lake. Individuals may spend all of their lives in fresh water, although, as a species, P. perotteti has not completely abandoned the sea, since some are known to occur in salt water. The Lake Nicaragua-Río San Juan sawfish are a discrete stock, with only limited gene flow with neighboring stocks. P. perotteti is farther along in its adaptation to fresh water, in being able both to osmoregulate and reproduce there, than other known euryhaline elasmobranchs, except for the African stingray, Dasyatis garouaensis, of the Niger-Benue System, and the completely adapted South American freshwater rays (family Potamotrygonidae).
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