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  • bioavailability  (2)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: acetylsalicylic acid ; salicylic acid ; dipyridamol ; bioavailability ; kinetics ; rapid- and slow-release formulations
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is a strong, irreversible inhibitor of platelet aggregation, but loses this activity following first-pass deacetylation to salicylic acid (SA). In order to compare the bioavailability of unchanged ASA from rapid- and slow-release formulations, the single-dose concentration profiles of ASA and SA were studied in healthy volunteers following intake of two different rapid-release (conventional and effervescent tablets) and three different slow-release (microencapsulated ASA in tablets and in capsules, and enteric-coated tablets) formulations of ASA, and of one slow-release formulation of sodium salicylate. Since anti-platelet therapy with ASA is often combined with dipyridamol, the influence of this drug was also examined. The concentrations of ASA and SA were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. While the bioavailability of SA from the 5 ASA formulations was essentially equal and similar to that of the salicylate formulation, the bioavailability and peak concentrations of ASA appeared to be the much greater after rapid-release than after slow-release formulations. Indeed, ASA was only rarely detected in systemic blood following intake of slow-release ASA. Co-administered dipyridamol did not significantly influence the kinetics of ASA or SA. It appears that rapid-release formulations of ASA should be prefered in anti-platelet therapy, either alone or in combination with dipyridamol.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: phenytoin ; food-intake ; bioavailability ; pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The influence of food intake on the absorption of phenytoin was examined in eight healthy volunteers, by study of single-dose kinetics following ingestion of phenytoin 300 mg either with a standardized breakfast or on an empty stomach. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals from 0 to 48 h, and serum concentrations of unmetabolized phenytoin were determined by gas chromatography. Serum concentrations of the major metabolite of phenytoin, 4-hydroxyphenytoin, were measured by mass fragmentography. Concurrent intake of food and phenytoin appeared to accelerate absorption of the drug from the formulation used, and the peak concentrations were significantly higher (mean increase 40%) in the postprandial than in the preprandial state. As reflected by the AUC (area under the curve), the amount of drug absorbed was increased during postprandial conditions, although the difference only reached borderline significance. It is suggested that phenytoin should always be taken in a defined relation to meals.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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