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  • benzodiazepine  (1)
  • biosynthetic insulin  (1)
  • hypothyroidism  (1)
  • Springer  (3)
  • American Chemical Society (ACS)
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  • Springer  (3)
  • American Chemical Society (ACS)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: benzodiazepine ; Chile ; agent consumption/ — utilization ; diazepam ; flunitrazepam
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The consumption of benzodiazepine drugs (BDZ) in Chile in the period 1982–1986 has been studied by the DDD method. National use was assessed using drug import forms as a source of information, assuming that the total amount imported was manufactured and consumed in the same year. The utilization did not show a constant pattern, being 32.7, 33.6, 50.2, 34.9, and 31.3 DDD 1000 per inhabitants per day in 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985 and 1986, respectively. During the study period, diazepam was the most commonly used agent amongst anxiolytic BDZ, reaching a peak of 27.1 DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day in 1984, and flunitrazepam was the most popular hypnotic, attaining its maximum in 1986 (6.4 DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day). The use of BDZ at community pharmacy level was also evaluated, employing the International Marketing System (IMS) as the source of information. At that level the pattern of utilization showed a constant increase during the study period, being 14.9 and 25.8 DDD/1000 inhabitants/per day in 1982 and 1986, respectively. In community pharmacies the anxiolytic BDZ most often consumed was diazepam (maximum 9.1 DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day in 1985), and the commonest hypnotic was flunitrazepam (peak 6.0 DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day in 1986). National consumption of BDZ appeared higher and more variable than use at the community pharmacy level, but in both there was greater usage of anxiolytic than of hypnotic BDZ, and diazepam and flunitrazepam were the most popular agents.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: human insulin ; diabetes control ; blood glucose ; free insulin ; biosynthetic insulin ; semisynthetic insulin ; monocomponent insulin ; pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Sixteen hospitalized insulin requiring diabetics treated with a single daily subcutaneous injection were randomly allocated either to a mixture of porcine Actrapid+Lente MC or a mixture of Regular+NPH—Biosynthetic human insulin (Study 1). In Study 2, 10 patients receiving two daily insulin injections were treated at random with either porcine Actrapid+Monotard, or Actrapid+Monotard—Semisynthetic human insulin or Regular+NPH—Biosynthetic human insulin. Once an optimal insulin regimen was obtained, circadian blood glucose and plasma free insulin profiles (7–9 time points) were determined with the two (Study 1) or three (Study 2) insulin preparations, keeping the doses of insulin constant. In Study 1 no significant difference in blood glucose (BG) or plasma free insulin (FIRI) profiles was observed. The mean daily blood glucose, the mean amplitude of glycaemic excursions (MAGE), the index of blood glucose control (M-value of Schlichtkrull), as well as the post-breakfast increases in blood glucose and mean free IRI, were similar with both types of insulin. In Study 2, BG and FIRI profiles were also similar, except for a significantly lower (p〈0.02) BG at 8.30 p.m. with both human insulins. No significant differences were found in free IRI at that time. Mean BG, M index, MAGE and mean FIRI were similar but the postbreakfast increase was significantly smaller with SHI. In conclusion, the pharmacokinetics of animal monocomponent, semisynthetic and biosynthetic human insulin appear similar, but evening BG control was better with both types of human insulins given twice daily.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Goldblatt two-kidney one clip hypertension ; methimazole ; hypothyroidism ; relative cardiac hypertrophy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effects of methimazole, and antithyroid drug, on blood pressure and other parameters were evaluated in the established phase of Goldblatt two-kidney one clip (G2K-1C) hypertension. Methimazole was administered via drinking water for five weeks, starting five weeks after hypertension had been induced. After this period of treatment, similarly high blood pressures were observed in methimazole-treated and non-treated G2K-1C rats, despite the fact that a hypothyroid state had been achieved in methimazole-treated rats. Methimazole-treated G2K-1C rats showed reductions in heart rate, ventricular weight, ventricular/body weight ratio and mortality in comparison with rats not treated with methimazole. These results clearly demonstrate that hypothyroidism induced by methimazole: a) does not reverse G2K-1C hypertension, but b) improves the rate of survival and c) reduces relative cardiac hypertrophy, possibly by the reduction in cardiac work observed in Goldblatt hypothyroid rats.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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