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  • Competitive interactions  (1)
  • Variable selection  (1)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Soil nitrogen competition ; Competitive interactions ; Oak savannas ; Annual and perennial grasses ; Quercus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The spatial overlap of woody plant root systems and that of annual or perennial grasses promotes competition for soil-derived resources. In this study we examined competition for soil nitrogen between blue oak seedlings and either the annual grassBromus mollis or the perennial grassStipa pulchra under controlled outdoor conditions. Short-term nitrogen competition was quantified by injecting15N at 30 cm depth in a plane horizontal to oak seedling roots and that of their neighbors, and calculating15N uptake rates, pool sizes and15N allocation patterns 24 h after labelling. Simultaneously, integrative nitrogen competition was quantified by examining total nitrogen capture, total nitrogen pools and total nitrogen allocation.Stipa neighbors reduced inorganic soil nitrogen content to a greater extent than didBromus plants. Blue oak seedlings responded to lower soil nitrogen content by allocating lower amounts of nitrogen per unit of biomass producing higher root length densities and reducing the nitrogen content of root tissue. In addition, blue oak seedlings growing with the perennial grass exhibited greater rates of15N uptake, on a root mass basis, compensating for higher soil nitrogen competition inStipa neighborhoods. Our findings suggest that while oak seedlings have lower rates of nitrogen capture than herbaceous neighbors, oak seedlings exhibit significant changes in nitrogen allocation and nitrogen uptake rates which may offset the competitive effect annual or perennial grasses have on soil nitrogen content.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Oecologia 72 (1987), S. 589-596 
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Seed dormancy ; Genetic variation ; Variable selection ; Erodium
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The periodic occurrence of summer/early autumn precipitation in the California annual grassland can result in the formation of early and late emerging cohorts of Erodium botrys and E. brachycarpum. The occurrence of early rainfall and the timing of such rainfall are highly variable from year to year. A series of field watering experiments in 1980–81 were used to simulate early emergence conditions that would result from significant rainfall (1 cm) occurring in mid-July, late August, and mid-September. Net reproduction was used to estimate fitness differentials between Erodium cohorts emerging in response to a watering treatment (early emerging cohorts) and Erodium cohorts emerging with the onset of winter rains in mid-October (late emerging cohorts). Survival was lower and gross reproduction was higher among early emerging cohorts than late emerging cohorts. For both species, net reproduction of the early cohort was lower than that of the late cohort under the July watering treatment and higher than that of the late cohort under the August watering treatment. Early cohorts, formed in response to rainfall in mid-September, 1982, were also compared demographically to later cohorts emerging in October. Compared to late cohorts, net reproduction, gross reproduction and survival were higher for the early cohorts. Common garden experiments indicate that differences in the duration of seed dormancy between the progenies of early and late emerging plants reflect a significant genetic component. Progency produced by early cohorts of E. brachycarpum from all three watering treatments possessed more extended seed dormancy than progeny of late cohorts. In E. botrys, progeny from early cohorts emerging in response to the July watering treatment were also more dormant than late progeny. In contrast, early cohorts of E. botrys emerging in response to the September watering treatment produced seed less dormant than seed produced by late cohorts. When combined with demographic data, indicating that fitness differentials between early and late cohorts varied with changes in the date of early emergence, genetic results suggest that year to year variation in early rainfall may act to retain genetic variation in the duration of seed dormancy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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