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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2005-08-16
    Description: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a pluripotent cell type that can differentiate into several distinct lineages. Two key transcription factors, Runx2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), drive MSCs to differentiate into either osteoblasts or adipocytes, respectively. How these two transcription factors are regulated in order to specify these alternate cell fates remains a pivotal question. Here we report that a 14-3-3-binding protein, TAZ (transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif), coactivates Runx2-dependent gene transcription while repressing PPARgamma-dependent gene transcription. By modulating TAZ expression in model cell lines, mouse embryonic fibroblasts, and primary MSCs in culture and in zebrafish in vivo, we observed alterations in osteogenic versus adipogenic potential. These results indicate that TAZ functions as a molecular rheostat that modulates MSC differentiation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hong, Jeong-Ho -- Hwang, Eun Sook -- McManus, Michael T -- Amsterdam, Adam -- Tian, Yu -- Kalmukova, Ralitsa -- Mueller, Elisabetta -- Benjamin, Thomas -- Spiegelman, Bruce M -- Sharp, Phillip A -- Hopkins, Nancy -- Yaffe, Michael B -- CA042063/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- GM60594/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM68762/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2005 Aug 12;309(5737):1074-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Cancer Research, Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, E18-580, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16099986" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipocytes/*cytology ; Animals ; Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 ; Bone Morphogenetic Proteins/pharmacology ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Line ; Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit ; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; Humans ; Mesenchymal Stromal Cells/*cytology/physiology ; Mice ; Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism ; Oligonucleotides, Antisense ; Osteoblasts/*cytology ; Osteocalcin/genetics ; Osteogenesis ; PPAR gamma/metabolism ; Promoter Regions, Genetic ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*physiology ; RNA, Small Interfering ; Transcription Factors/chemistry/genetics/metabolism/*physiology ; Transcriptional Activation ; Transfection ; Transforming Growth Factor beta/pharmacology ; Zebrafish ; Zebrafish Proteins/genetics/physiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 1996-12-20
    Description: Adipocyte differentiation is an important component of obesity and other metabolic diseases. This process is strongly inhibited by many mitogens and oncogenes. Several growth factors that inhibit fat cell differentiation caused mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-mediated phosphorylation of the dominant adipogenic transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and reduction of its transcriptional activity. Expression of PPARgamma with a nonphosphorylatable mutation at this site (serine-112) yielded cells with increased sensitivity to ligand-induced adipogenesis and resistance to inhibition of differentiation by mitogens. These results indicate that covalent modification of PPARgamma by serum and growth factors is a major regulator of the balance between cell growth and differentiation in the adipose cell lineage.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hu, E -- Kim, J B -- Sarraf, P -- Spiegelman, B M -- R37DK31405/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1996 Dec 20;274(5295):2100-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8953045" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: 3T3 Cells ; Adipocytes/*cytology/metabolism ; Animals ; Blood ; Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors/*metabolism ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Line ; Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology ; Epidermal Growth Factor/pharmacology ; Flavonoids/pharmacology ; Insulin/pharmacology ; Ligands ; Mice ; Mitogens/pharmacology ; Mutation ; Phosphorylation ; Rats ; Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate/pharmacology ; Transcription Factors/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Transcription, Genetic/drug effects ; Transfection
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 1989-06-23
    Description: Adipsin is a serine protease that is secreted by adipocytes into the bloodstream; it is deficient in several animal models of obesity, representing a striking example of defective gene expression in this disorder. Recombinant mouse adipsin was purified and its biochemical and enzymatic properties were studied in order to elucidate the function of this protein. Activated adipsin has little or no proteolytic activity toward most substrates but has the same activity as human complement factor D, cleaving complement factor B when it is complexed with activated complement component C3. Like authentic factor D, adipsin can activate the alternative pathway of complement, resulting in red blood cell lysis. Decreased (58 to 80 percent) complement factor D activity, relative to lean controls, was observed as a common feature of several experimental models of obesity, including the ob/ob, db/db, and monosodium glutamate (MSG)-injected mouse and the fa/fa rat. These results suggest that adipsin and the alternative pathway of complement may play an unexpected but important role in the regulation of systemic energy balance in vivo.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Rosen, B S -- Cook, K S -- Yaglom, J -- Groves, D L -- Volanakis, J E -- Damm, D -- White, T -- Spiegelman, B M -- DK31403/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK34605/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1989 Jun 23;244(4911):1483-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2734615" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipose Tissue/metabolism ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Cell Line ; Complement Activating Enzymes/*metabolism ; Complement Factor D/*metabolism ; Complement Pathway, Alternative ; Cricetinae ; DNA/genetics ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Humans ; Immunoblotting ; Mice ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Obesity/genetics/*immunology/metabolism ; RNA, Messenger/metabolism ; Recombinant Proteins ; Serine Endopeptidases/genetics/isolation & purification/*metabolism ; Substrate Specificity ; Transfection
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 1999-11-13
    Description: Transcriptional coactivators have been viewed as constitutively active components, using transcription factors mainly to localize their functions. Here, it is shown that PPARgamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1) promotes transcription through the assembly of a complex that includes the histone acetyltransferases steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) and CREB binding protein (CBP)/p300. PGC-1 has a low inherent transcriptional activity when it is not bound to a transcription factor. The docking of PGC-1 to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) stimulates an apparent conformational change in PGC-1 that permits binding of SRC-1 and CBP/p300, resulting in a large increase in transcriptional activity. Thus, transcription factor docking switches on the activity of a coactivator protein.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Puigserver, P -- Adelmant, G -- Wu, Z -- Fan, M -- Xu, J -- O'Malley, B -- Spiegelman, B M -- DK54477/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Nov 12;286(5443):1368-71.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10558993" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Binding Sites ; COS Cells ; DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism ; E1A-Associated p300 Protein ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Histone Acetyltransferases ; Mice ; Nuclear Proteins/chemistry/*metabolism ; Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 1 ; Nuclear Respiratory Factors ; Protein Binding ; Protein Conformation ; Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/*metabolism ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism ; Trans-Activators/chemistry/*metabolism ; Transcription Factors/chemistry/*metabolism ; *Transcription, Genetic ; Transfection
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 1989-09-15
    Description: Gene targeting via homologous recombination-mediated disruption in murine embryonic stem (ES) cells has been described for a number of different genes expressed in these cells; it has not been reported for any nonexpressed genes. Pluripotent stem cell lines were isolated with homologously recombined insertions at three different loci: c-fos, which is expressed at a low level in ES cells, and two genes, adipsin and adipocyte P2 (aP2), which are transcribed specifically in adipose cells and are not expressed at detectable levels in ES cells. The frequencies at which homologous recombination events occurred did not correlate with levels of expression of the targeted genes, but did occur at rates comparable to those previously reported for genes that are actively expressed in ES cells. Injection of successfully targeted cells into mouse blastocysts resulted in the formation of chimeric mice. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of altering genes in ES cells that are expressed in a tissue-specific manner in the mouse, in order to study their function at later developmental stages.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Johnson, R S -- Sheng, M -- Greenberg, M E -- Kolodner, R D -- Papaioannou, V E -- Spiegelman, B M -- DK 31405/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1989 Sep 15;245(4923):1234-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2506639" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipose Tissue/cytology ; Animals ; Blotting, Northern ; Blotting, Southern ; Carrier Proteins/biosynthesis/*genetics ; Cell Line ; Chimera ; Complement Factor D ; DNA, Recombinant ; DNA-Binding Proteins/biosynthesis/genetics ; Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins ; Fatty Acids/metabolism ; *Gene Expression Regulation ; Genetic Vectors ; Mice ; *Neoplasm Proteins ; *Nerve Tissue Proteins ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/biosynthesis/*genetics ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos ; RNA, Messenger/biosynthesis/genetics ; *Recombination, Genetic ; Serine Endopeptidases/*genetics ; Stem Cells/*metabolism ; Transfection
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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