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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Boreal forest ; Nitrogen, phosphorus, and cation nutrition ; Stable isotopes ; Picea glauca Calamagrostis Vaccinium
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Natural abundances of nitrogen isotopes, δ15N, indicate that, in the same habitat, Alaskan Picea glauca and P. mariana use a different soil nitrogen compartment from the evergreen shrub Vaccinium vitis-idaea or the deciduous grass Calamagrostis canadensis. The very low δ15N values (-7.7 ‰) suggest that (1) Picea mainly uses inorganic nitrogen (probably mainly ammonium) or organic N in fresh litter, (2) Vaccinium (-4.3 ‰) with its ericoid mycorrhizae uses more stable organic matter, and (3) Calamagrostis (+0.9 ‰) exploits deeper soil horizons with higher δ15N values of soil N. We conclude that species limited by the same nutrient may coexist by drawing on different pools of soil N in a nutrient-deficient environment. The differences among life-forms decrease with increasing N availability. The different levels of δ15N are associated with different nitrogen concentrations in leaves, Picea having a lower N concentration (0.62 mmol g−1) than Vaccinium (0.98 mmol g−1) or Calamagrostis (1.33 mmol g−1). An extended vector analysis by Timmer and Armstrong (1987) suggests that N is the most limiting element for Picea in this habitat, causing needle yellowing at N concentrations below 0.5 mmol g−1 or N contents below 2 mmol needle−1. Increasing N supply had an exponential effect on twig and needle growth. Phosphorus, potassium and magnesium are at marginal supply, but no interaction between ammonium supply and needle Mg concentration could be detected. Calcium is in adequate supply on both calcareous and acidic soils. The results are compared with European conditions of excessive N supply from anthropogenic N depositions.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: δ13C ; δ15N ; Nitrogen assimilation ; Forest decline ; Picea abies ; Stable isotopes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Natural carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were measured in different compartments (needles and twigs of different ages and crown positions, litter, understorey vegetation, roots and soils of different horizons) on 5 plots of a healthy and on 8 plots of a declining Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) forest in the Fichtelgebirge (NE Bavaria, Germany), which has recently been described in detail (Oren et al. 1988a; Schulze et al. 1989). The δ13C values of needles did not differ between sites or change consistently with needle age, but did decrease from the sun-to the shade-crown. This result confirms earlier conclusions from gas exchange measurements that gaseous air pollutants did no long-lasting damage in an area where such damage was expected. Twigs (δ13C between-25.3 and-27.8‰) were significantly less depleted in 13C than needles (δ13C between-27.3 and-29.1‰), and δ13C in twigs increased consistently with age. The δ15N values of needles ranged between-2.5 and-4.1‰ and varied according to stand and age. In young needles δ15N decreased with needle age, but remained constant or increased in needles that were 2 or 3 years old. Needles from the healthy site were more depleted in 15N than those from the declining site. The difference between sites was greater in old needles than in young ones. This differentiation presumably reflects an earlier onset of nitrogen reallocation in needles of the declining stand. δ15N values in twigs were more negative than in needles (-3.5 to-5.2‰) and showed age- and stand-dependent trends that were similar to the needles. δ15N values of roots and soil samples increased at both stands with soil depth from-3.5 in the organic layer to +4‰ in the mineral soil. The δ15N values of roots from the mineral soil were different from those of twigs and needles. Roots from the shallower organic layer had values similar to twigs and needles. Thus, the bulk of the assimilated nitrogen was presumably taken up by the roots from the organic layer. The problem of separation of ammonium or nitrate use by roots from different soil horizons is discussed.
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