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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: The characterization of the electromagnetic interaction for a solar sail in the solar wind environment, and identification of viable charging mitigation strategies, is a critical solar sail mission design task, as spacecraft charging has important implications both for science applications and for sail lifetime. To that end, we have performed surface charging calculations of a candidate 150-meter-class solar sail spacecraft for the 0.5 AU solar polar orbit and a 1.0 AU L1 orbit. We construct a model of the spacecraft with candidate materials having appropriate electrical properties using Object Toolkit and perform the spacecraft charging analysis using NASCAP-2k, the NASA/AFRL sponsored spacecraft charging analysis tool. We use nominal and atypical solar wind environments appropriate for the 0.5 AU and 1.0 AU missions to establish current collection of solar wind ions and electrons. In addition, we include a geostationary orbit case to demonstrate a bounding example of extreme (negative) charging of a solar sail spacecraft in the geostationary orbit environment. Results from the charging analysis demonstrate that minimal differential potentials (and resulting threat of electrostatic discharge) occur when the spacecraft is constructed entirely of conducting materials, as expected. Examples with dielectric materials exposed to the space environment exhibit differential potentials ranging from a few volts to extreme potentials in the kilovolt range.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Propulsion and Power
    Type: 9th Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference; Apr 04, 2005 - Apr 08, 2005; Tsukuba; Japan
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: This paper will describe the thermal analysis techniques used to predict temperatures in the film-cooled ablative rocket nozzle used on the MC-1 60K rocket engine. A model was developed that predicts char and pyrolysis depths, liner thermal gradients, and temperatures of the bondline between the overwrap and liner. Correlation of the model was accomplished by thermal analog tests performed at Southern Research, and specially instrumented hot fire tests at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Infrared thermography was instrumental in defining nozzle hot wall surface temperatures. In-depth and outboard thermocouple data was used to correlate the kinetic decomposition routine used to predict char and pyrolysis depths. These depths were anchored with measured char and pyrolysis depths from cross-sectioned hot-fire nozzles. For the X-34 flight analysis, the model includes the ablative Thermal Protection System (TPS) material that protects the overwrap from the recirculating plume. Results from model correlation, hot-fire testing, and flight predictions will be discussed.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Propulsion and Power
    Type: Space Technology and Applications International Forum 2001; Feb 11, 2001 - Feb 14, 2001; Albuquerque, NM; United States
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: This paper describes the requirements, design, integration, test, performance, and lessons learned of NASA's Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) propulsion subsystem. MAP was launched on a Delta-II launch vehicle from NASA's Kennedy Space Center on June 30, 2001. Due to instrument thermal stability requirements, the Earth-Sun L2 Lagrange point was selected for the mission orbit. The L2 trajectory incorporated phasing loops and a lunar gravity assist. The propulsion subsystem's requirements are to manage momentum, perform maneuvers during the phasing loops to set up the lunar swingby, and perform stationkeeping at L2 for 2 years. MAP's propulsion subsystem uses 8 thrusters which are located and oriented to provide attitude control and momentum management about all axes, and delta-V in any direction without exposing the instrument to the sun. The propellant tank holds 72 kg of hydrazine, which is expelled by unregulated blowdown pressurization. Thermal management is complex because no heater cycling is allowed at L2. Several technical challenges presented themselves during I and T, such as in-situ weld repairs and in-situ bending of thruster tubes to accommodate late changes in the observatory CG. On-orbit performance has been nominal, and all phasing loop, mid-course correction, and stationkeeping maneuvers have been successfully performed to date.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Propulsion and Power
    Type: AIAA-2002-4156 , AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE 38th Joint Propulsion Conference; Jul 07, 2002 - Jul 10, 2002; Indianapolis, IN; United States
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: With the goal of lowering the cost of payload to orbit, NASA/MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) researched ways to decrease the complexity and cost of an engine system and its components for a small two-stage booster vehicle. The composite nozzle for this Fastrac Engine was designed, built and tested by MSFC with fabrication support and engineering from Thiokol-SEHO (Science and Engineering Huntsville Operation). The Fastrac nozzle uses materials, fabrication processes and design features that are inexpensive, simple and easily manufactured. As the low cost nozzle (and injector) design matured through the subscale tests and into full scale hot fire testing, X-34 chose the Fastrac engine for the propulsion plant for the X-34. Modifications were made to nozzle design in order to meet the new flight requirements. The nozzle design has evolved through subscale testing and manufacturing demonstrations to full CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics), thermal, thermomechanical and dynamic analysis and the required component and engine system tests to validate the design. The Fastrac nozzle is now in final development hot fire testing and has successfully accumulated 66 hot fire tests and 1804 seconds on 18 different nozzles.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Propulsion and Power
    Type: AIAA Paper 2000-3397 , Joint Propulsion; Jul 17, 2000 - Jul 19, 2000; Huntsville, AL; United States
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: This study was conducted to evaluate several propulsion system options for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) core satellite. Orbital simulations showed clear benefits for the scientific data to be obtained at a constant orbital altitude rather than with a decay/reboost approach. An orbital analysis estimated the drag force on the satellite will be 1 to 12 mN during the five-year mission. Four electric propulsion systems were identified that are able to compensate for these drag forces and maintain a circular orbit. The four systems were the UK-10/TS and the NASA 8 cm ion engines, and the ESA RMT and RITl0 EVO radio-frequency ion engines. The mass, cost, and power requirements were examined for these four systems. The systems were also evaluated for the transfer time from the initial orbit of 400 x 650 km altitude orbit to a circular 400 km orbit. The transfer times were excessive, and as a consequence a dual system concept (with a hydrazine monopropellant system for the orbit transfer and electric propulsion for drag compensation) was examined. Clear mass benefits were obtained with the dual system, but cost remains an issue because of the larger power system required for the electric propulsion system. An electrodynamic tether was also evaluated in this trade study.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Propulsion and Power
    Type: AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference; Jul 20, 2003 - Jul 23, 2003; Huntsville, AL; United States
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Science Applications International Corporation is currently developing the Electric Propulsion Interactions Code, EPIC, as part of a project sponsored by the Space Environments and Effects Program at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Now in its second year of development, EPIC is an interactive computer toolset that allows the construction of a 3-D spacecraft model, and the assessment of a variety of interactions between its subsystems and the plume from an electric thruster. This paper reports on the progress of EPZC including the recently added ability to exchange results the NASA Charging Analyzer Program, Nascap-2k. The capability greatly enhances EPIC's range of applicability. Expansion of the toolset's various physics models proceeds in parallel with the overall development of the software. Also presented are recent upgrades of the elastic scattering algorithm in the electric propulsion Plume Tool. These upgrades are motivated by the need to assess the effects of elastically scattered ions on the SIC for ion beam energies that exceed loo0 eV. Such energy levels are expected in future high-power (〉10 kW) ion propulsion systems empowered by nuclear sources.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Propulsion and Power
    Type: AIAA Paper 2003-4871 , AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference; Jul 20, 2003 - Jul 23, 2003; Huntsville, AL; United States
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The Microwave Anisotropy Probe is a follow-on to the Differential Microwave Radiometer instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer. Sixteen months before launch, it was discovered that from the time of the critical design review, configuration changes had resulted in a significant migration of the spacecraft's center of mass. As a result, the spacecraft no longer had a viable backup control mode in the event of a failure of the negative pitch axis thruster. Potential solutions to this problem were identified, such as adding thruster plume shields to redirect thruster torque, adding mass to, or removing it from, the spacecraft, adding an additional thruster, moving thrusters, bending thrusters (either nozzles or propellant tubing), or accepting the loss of redundancy for the thruster. The impacts of each solution, including effects on the mass, cost, and fuel budgets, as well as schedule, were considered, and it was decided to bend the thruster propellant tubing of the two roll control thrusters, allowing that pair to be used for back-up control in the negative pitch axis. This paper discusses the problem and the potential solutions, and documents the hardware and software changes that needed to be made to implement the chosen solution. Flight data is presented to show the propulsion system on-orbit performance.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Propulsion and Power
    Type: AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference; Aug 06, 2002 - Aug 10, 2002; Monterey, CA; United States
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: During a post-test inspection of a Booster Separation Motor (BSM) from a Lot Acceptance Test (LAT), a crack was noticed in the graphite throat. Since this was an out-of-family occurrence, an investigation team was formed to determine the cause of the crack. This paper will describe thermal analysis techniques used in support of this investigation. Models were generated to predict gradients in nominal motor conditions, as well as potentially anomalous conditions. Analysis was also performed on throats that were tested in the Laser Hardened Material Evaluation Laboratory (LHMEL). Some of these throats were pre-cracked, while others represented configurations designed to amplify effects of thermal stresses. Results from these analyses will be presented in this paper.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Propulsion and Power
    Type: 2001 Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop; Sep 10, 2001 - Sep 14, 2001; Huntsville, AL; United States
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 9
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: This paper will describe the thermal analysis techniques used to predict temperatures in the film-cooled ablative rocket nozzle used on the Fastrac 60K rocket engine. A model was developed that predicts char and pyrolysis depths, liner thermal gradients, and temperatures of the bondline between the overwrap and liner. Correlation of the model was accomplished by thermal analog tests performed at Southern Research, and specially instrumented hot fire tests at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Infrared thermography was instrumental in defining nozzle hot wall surface temperatures. In-depth and outboard thermocouple data was used to correlate the kinetic decomposition routine used to predict char and pyrolysis depths. These depths were anchored with measured char and pyrolysis depths from cross-sectioned hot-fire nozzles. For the X-34 flight analysis, the model includes the ablative Thermal Protection System (TPS) material that protects the overwrap from the recirculating plume. Results from model correlation, hot-fire testing, and flight predictions will be discussed.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Propulsion and Power
    Type: The Tenth Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop; NASA/CP-2001-211141
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Keywords: Spacecraft Propulsion and Power
    Type: DS1 Technology Validation Symposium; Pasadena, CA; United States
    Format: text
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