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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: Porous-ceramic, thermal protection systems are used heavily in current reentry vehicles like the Space Shuttle and are currently being proposed for the next generation of manned spacecraft, Orion. These materials insulate the structural components of a spacecraft against the intense thermal environments of atmospheric reentry. Furthermore, these materials are also highly exposed to space environmental hazards like meteoroid and orbital debris impacts. This paper discusses recent impact testing up to 9 km/s, and the findings of the influence of material equation-of-state on the simulation of the impact event to characterize the ballistic performance of these materials. These results will be compared with heritage models1 for these materials developed from testing at lower velocities. Assessments of predicted spacecraft risk based upon these tests and simulations will also be discussed.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: JSC-CN-18501 , Hypervelocity Impact Symposium 2010; Apr 11, 2010; Freiburg; Germany
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: In response to the Vision for Space Exploration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has defined a new space exploration architecture to return humans to the Moon and to prepare for human exploration of Mars. One of the first new developments will be the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) , which will carry the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) into Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to support International Space Station (ISS) missions and, later, to support lunar missions. As part of the CLV development, NASA will perform a series of CLV flight tests. The tests will provide data that will inform the engineering and design process and verify the flight hardware and software. In addition, the data gained from the flight tests will be used to certify the new CLV/CEV vehicle for human space flight. This paper will provide an overview of the CLV flight test process and details of the individual flight tests
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-08-13
    Description: In response to the Vision for Space Exploration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has defined a new space exploration architecture to return humans to the Moon and prepare for human exploration of Mars. One of the first new developments will be the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), which will carry the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), into Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to support International Space Station (ISS) missions and, later, support lunar missions. As part of Ares I development, NASA will perform a series of Ares I flight tests. The tests will provide data that will inform the engineering and design process and verify the flight hardware and software. The data gained from the flight tests will be used to certify the new Ares/Orion vehicle for human space flight. The primary objectives of this first flight test (Ares I-X) are the following: Demonstrate control of a dynamically similar integrated Ares CLV/Orion CEV using Ares CLV ascent control algorithms; Perform an in-flight separation/staging event between an Ares I-similar First Stage and a representative Upper Stage; Demonstrate assembly and recovery of a new Ares CLV-like First Stage element at Kennedy Space Center (KSC); Demonstrate First Stage separation sequencing, and quantify First Stage atmospheric entry dynamics and parachute performance; and Characterize the magnitude of the integrated vehicle roll torque throughout the First Stage (powered) flight. This paper will provide an overview of the Ares I-X flight test process and details of the individual flight tests.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: 54th Joint JANNAF Propulsion Meeting; May 14, 2007 - May 17, 2007; Denver, Co; United States
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: High-test hydrogen peroxide (HP) is an energetic liquid with widespread use in a variety of industrial and aerospace applications. In recent years, there has been increased interest in its use as a "green" or environmentally benign propellant in spacecraft and defense propulsion and power systems. HP, however, can be a significant hazard if not properly handled. In addition, hydrogen peroxide is unstable when exposed to trace contaminants, which may catalyze decomposition and result in violent thermal runaway. Many advanced and newly developed alloys, polymers, composites and other construction materials (such as those used in tankage and piping systems) have not been tested for compatibility with hydrogen peroxide. The reliability of extrapolating from short-term compatibility test results to long-term compatibility has not yet been fully assessed. Therefore, the users and designers of HP systems must be aware of these hazards and unknowns and take the appropriate precautions.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NASA/TM-2004-213151 , S-936 , JSC-CN-8960 , JSC-E-DAA-TN63718
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: The Space Shuttle Program (SSP) has a zero-fault-tolerant design related to an inadvertent firing of the primary reaction control jets on the Orbiter during mated operations with the International Space Station (ISS). Failure modes identified by the program as a wire-to-wire "smart" short or a Darlington transistor short resulting in a failed-on primary thruster during mated operations with ISS can drive forces that exceed the structural capabilities of the docked Shuttle/ISS structure. The assessment team delivered 17 observations, 6 findings and 15 recommendations to the Space Shuttle Program.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NASA/TM-2005-213750/VERSION1.0 , L-19119/VERSION1.0 , NESC-RP-05-18-Version-1.0
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: In the past, the orbital debris environment was modeled as consisting entirely of aluminum particles. As a consequence, most of the impact test database on spacecraft micro-meteoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) shields, and the resulting ballistic limit equations used to predict shielding performance, has been based on using aluminum projectiles. Recently, data has been collected from returned spacecraft materials and other sources that indicate higher and lower density components of orbital debris also exist. New orbital debris environment models such as ORDEM2008 provide predictions of the fraction of orbital debris in various density bins (high = 7.9 g/cu cm, medium = 2.8 g/cu cm, and low = 0.9-1.1 g/cu cm). This paper describes impact tests to assess the effects of projectile density on the performance capabilities of typical MMOD shields. Updates to shield ballistic limit equations are provided based on results of tests and analysis.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: JSC-CN-18674 , 11th Hypervelocity Impact Symposium; Apr 11, 2010 - Apr 15, 2010; Freiburg; Germany
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  • 7
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: In less than two years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will launch the Ares I-X mission. This will be the first flight of the Ares I crew launch vehicle, which, together with the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, will eventually send humans to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. As the countdown to this first Ares mission continues, personnel from across the Ares I-X Mission Management Office (MMO) are finalizing designs and fabricating vehicle hardware for an April 2009 launch. This paper will discuss the hardware and programmatic progress of the Ares I-X mission. Like the Apollo program, the Ares launch vehicles will rely upon extensive ground, flight, and orbital testing before sending the Orion crew exploration vehicle into space with humans on board. The first flight of Ares I, designated Ares I-X, will be a suborbital development flight test. Ares I-X gives NASA its first opportunity to gather critical data about the flight dynamics of the integrated launch vehicle stack; understand how to control its roll during flight; better characterize the severe stage separation environments that the upper stage engine will experience during future operational flights; and demonstrate the first stage recovery system. NASA also will begin modifying the launch infrastructure and fine-tuning ground and mission operations, as the agency makes the transition from the Space Shuttle to the Ares/Orion system.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: MSFC-2051 , AIAA Space 2008; Sep 09, 2008 - Sep 11, 2008; San Diego, CA; United States
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Whipple shields were first proposed as a means of protecting spacecraft from the impact of micrometeoroids in 1947 [1] and are currently in use as micrometeoroid and orbital debris shields on modern spacecraft. In the intervening years, the function of the thin bumper used to shatter or melt threatening particles has been augmented and enhanced by the use of various types and configurations of intermediate layers of various materials. All shield designs serve to minimize the threat of a spall failure or perforation of the main wall of the spacecraft as a result of the impact of the fragments. With increasing use of Whipple shields, various ballistic limit equations (BLEs) for guiding the design and estimating the performance of shield systems have been developed. Perhaps the best known and most used are the "new" modified Cour-Palais (Christiansen) equations [2]. These equations address the three phases of impact: (1) ballistic (〈3 km/s), where the projectile is moving too slowly to fragment and essentially penetrates as an intact projectile; (2) shatter (3 to 7 km/s), where the projectile fragments at impact and forms an expanding cloud of debris fragments; and (3) melt/vaporization (〉7 km/s), where the projectile melts or vaporizes at impact. The performance of Whipple shields and the adequacy of the BLEs have been examined for the first two phases using the results of impact tests obtained from two-stage, light-gas gun test firings. Shield performance and the adequacy of the BLEs has not been evaluated in the melt/vaporization phase until now because of the limitations of launchers used to accelerate projectiles with controlled properties to velocities above 7.5 km/s. A three-stage, light-gas gun, developed at the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) [3], is capable of launching small, aluminum spheres to velocities above 9 km/s. This launcher was used to evaluate the ballistic performance of two Whipple shield systems, various thermal protection system materials, and other spacecraft-related materials to the impact of 1.6-mm- to 2.6-mm-diameter, 2017-T4 aluminum spheres at impact velocities ranging from 8.91 km/s to 9.28 km/s. Test results, details of the shield systems, and nominal ballistic limits for the two Whipple shields are shown in Figures 1 and 2.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: JSC-CN-18485 , Hypervelocity Impact Symposium 2010; Apr 11, 2010 - Apr 15, 2010; Freiburg; Germany
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) is used as a basis for an end-to-end descent and landing trajectory simulation that is essential in determining design and integration capability and system performance of the lunar descent and landing system and environment models for the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project. The POST2 simulation provides a six degree-of-freedom capability necessary to test, design and operate a descent and landing system for successful lunar landing. This paper presents advances in the development and model-implementation of the POST2 simulation, as well as preliminary system performance analysis, used for the testing and evaluation of ALHAT project system models.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: AIAA/AAS Astrodynamics Specialist Conference; Aug 18, 2008 - Aug 21, 2008; Honolulu, HI; United States
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: KSC-2006-114 , C3P/NASA International Workshop; Jul 31, 2006 - Aug 04, 2006; Portland, OR; United States
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